Question The practice occurs during the dry season when the weather conditions at the sea are favorable, people are divided into a group of eighteen per sub clan which are headed by tena alep though he does not own a boat he controls the daily activities, the boats sail in groups and keep a good communication network between them since large whales are difficult to catch and other boat are left behind incase there are emergency situation they step in but they only do so when it is unavoidable. This is done in a carefully calculated manner, incase of an accident and help is called upon then crew that participate in the kill gets to claim the carcass, the crew that offers help can place additional harpoons or tie onto the first boat to help serve as a drogue. When it comes to sharing the catch, there is a systematic way of distribution, the crew that captures the prey gets whole share, the second crew gets the corporate share and lastly the reaming portion goes to craftsmen who may be from the same clan or other clans. The distribution is done in this manner due to the efforts put by each haunting crew. Alvard uses a line graph to present his data, form the line graph one can tell that Lamalera has been on the decline as times goes by.
Question 2
Marlowe’s hypothesis states that male partner is not partly mating effort, only that it is not wholly mating then this would mean that parental care given to biological child to get special care than the stepchild, direct parental care are the basic needs that one ought to have such as holdings, nursing among others whereas indirect care are the needs that one ought to have to make life worth living and examples are territorial defense, resource acquisition and much more. In direct care, biological fathers tend to interact more with their offspring, they spend much time together with the child and also provide enough food which is essential to a child’s growth. On the other hand indirect care shows how the step father does not spend much time and the division of household stuff is despicable, the communication between man and child is also minimal, finally the stepchild does not receive nurturing care just like the biological child gets. The difference in indirect care is that the man provides parental care in exchange of sexual access, the mother is likely to nurse for longer in this situation. Men earns the reputation of being good hunters hence thy get positive correlated when it comes to reproductive success, having more wives correlate with less investment one’s but one’s own child.
Question 3
Funeral ceremonies are important ritual carried out in the Melanesian societies, when death occurs the kin arranges for a meeting between immediate family members and a leader is selected for the event, money is then contributed to cater for the funeral program, Bood is a feasting ceremony that takes place on the second day after the passing on of the deceased, here food is donated by the kinsmen and other village members. Bood continues for several days till when the grave site and a temporary cross are constructed then conversation from the Christian community ends the mourning period. Tombstone opening is the public setting of the headstone at the grave site; it begins with preparation and public works which may take 2 month before the penultimate feast, during this time all people are fed by the immediate family member who predicts the number of people turning up, the feast provides the audience for many other forms of completion which includes dart throwing among others. Nesting season is the period gravid female turtle lays egg on the sandy beaches it normally occurs during November to around April while non nesting is the period when the gravid turtle do not lay eggs and are considered hunting periods though , hunting crew is comprised of six men led by hunt leader who directs the hunt, in the crew there is a jumper who leaps into the water to pursue turtles, a harpooner and a pilot who pilots the out-board skiff under the direction of the leader, after the hunt the turtle is taken alive and intact to the family that commissioned the hunt then it is butchered, cooked and served as a public feast. Non-nesting period hunting can be costly since the only turtle that can be obtained are long distant hunts. Since the hunt leaders are generation older than the crew he gives direction and at times act as the pilot during pursuit. the leader are advertising experience and guidance so as to get their catch while the jumpers shows courage, hard work and commitment to show noting comes easy and one ought to work hard.