University of sunderland

University of Sunderland The Faculty of Business and Law Postgraduate Business and Management Programmes Academic Year 2012/13 Module Guide: PGBM07 Cross Cultural Management Module Leader: John Reilly O’Donnell Room: RV108 Email: john. [email protected] ac. uk Module Tutor: Sandy Drossou Email: sandy. [email protected] ac. uk Module Description CODE: PGBM07 CREDITS: 15 LEVELS: MASTERS SCHOOL: BUSINESS MODULE BOARD: POSTGRADUATE BUSINESS PRE – REQUISITES: NONE CO -REQUISITES: NONE LEARNING HOURS: 150 HOURS, with 30 contact hours, the exact nature of which is specified in the module guide LEARNING OUTCOMES: Upon successful completion of this module, students will be able to: Knowledge-based outcomes 1. Analyse the factors in their own culture, which affect their own behaviour and interactions with other people and influence effectiveness in cross-cultural encounters. 2. Analyse the ways in which other cultures are both similar to and different from their own. 3. Examine the influence of culture and cultural differences on management skills, behaviour, effectiveness and performance. Skills-based outcomes 4. Demonstrate understanding of behaviour from the perspective of another culture. 5. Demonstrate enhanced and effective cross-cultural managerial capacities and skills. 6. Demonstrate the ability to take advantage of cultural diversity and a multicultural work environment, through a ‘ culturally synergistic’ management approach. CONTENT SYNOPSIS: – Cultural differences and their influence on the nature of managerial skills and communication and behaviour: Cultural differences, attribution and behaviour; Managerial values, thinking, beliefs and styles in different cultures. – Intercultural Communication: socio-cultural backgrounds: what we bring to intercultural communication; and intercultural interaction: taking part in intercultural communication. – Developing effective international managers: the cultural context of management development. Enhancing international assignments, acculturation and international adjustment. – The management of international joint ventures. Multicultural teams: conflict and synergy. Cross-cultural motivation. The management of diversity in organisations. – The relationship of power and market fundamentalist policies which have generated militant opposition in the West as well as the Third World, expressed through the anti-globalisation movement in the last decade. TEACHING AND LEARNING METHODS: The structure for the unit will be provided by a series of tasks, which will need to be completed by participants, mostly in teams. Theory and concept sessions will be integrated with the experiences and will underlie analytical activities. Students will be encouraged to participate actively in the learning process through syndicate work, individual and group oral presentations based on the analysis of assigned readings and/or case studies, applied project work, experiential exercises, and essays. Some use will also be made of more didactic methods through lectures. Seminars will be 2 hours in length and will involve some combination of these learning methods. The learner is treated as a learning resource; there is active participation of the learner in their learning; and evaluation is used as a basis for problem solving and improvement. Emphasis will be placed on activities designed to develop skills, enhanced by analytical and theoretical work. Formative feedback is given on presentations given by students as well as the opportunity to reflect on their learning with others. Lectures – 1 hour per week for 10 weeks 10 hours Seminars – 2 hours per week for 10 weeks 20 hours Structured tasks and self-directed study 120 hours ASSESSMENT METHODS The assignment for this Module is in two parts, see page 25. Both parts are an individual piece of work based on the student’s individual learning from the course. The course is designed to encourage students to engage in opportunities to interact with people from other cultural backgrounds to their own. The primary purpose of the individual report is to apply course learning to the individual student, their behaviour and interactions with people of other cultures and to reinforce the learning of personal skills. The personal journal that they keep throughout the course will form the basis for their individual written reflective participation report. APPLIFIED CONTENT This course is designed to address the dilemmas and opportunities of managing and interacting in organisations across cultural boundaries, both internationally and domestically. It is intended to develop an appreciation of what it is like to work in other countries and with people from other cultures. This course contributes to the development of knowledge and skills needed to manage effectively in other cultural environments and to work effectively with people from other cultures. The conceptual and case material increases sensitivity to important cultural differences and assumptions underlying the behaviour of people and the issues managers are likely to encounter in other countries. INDICATIVE READING Essential Core Reading Browaeys, M-J and Price, R, (2011) Understanding Cross-Cultural Management (2nd Ed.), Harlow: Pearson Education Ltd. Supplementary Reading Adler, N. J.(2001). International Dimensions of Organizational Behavior (4th ed.). Cincinnati: South-Western Gannon, M. J. (2002). Handbook of Cross-Cultural Management. Oxford, U. K.: Blackwell Publishers Ltd Guirdham, M. (2005) (2nd Ed.). Communicating Across Cultures. London: Macmillan. Hampden-Turner, C. and Trompenaars, F. (2002). Building Cross-Cultural Competence: How to create wealth from conflicting values. Chichester: Wiley & Sons Ltd Harris, P. R. & Moran, R. T.(2000). Managing Cultural Differences (5th ed.). Houston: Gulf Publishing Walker, D., Walker, T. and Scmitz, J. (2003). The Guide to Cross-Cultural Success: Doing Business Internationally. U. S. A.: McGraw-Hill Journal Cross Cultural Management by Emerald PROGRAMMES USING THIS MODULE AS A CORE OR OPTION: MAIM Core Franchised: NO MODULE LEADER: John Reilly O’Donnell Room RV108 email: john. [email protected] ac. uk CODE: DATE PROCESSED BY QS Introduction The purpose of this module is to provide students with an overview of cross-cultural concepts which include cultural differences and their influence on the nature of managerial skills, communication and behaviour, intercultural communication and developing effective international managers. The module is designed to be hands-on with an emphasis on practical application. The module is structured as follows: | | | | Teaching Week | Title of Session | | | | | CULTURE AND MANAGEMENT | | | 1 | Determinants and Dimensions of Culture | | 2 | Business Cultures across the World | | 3 | Cultural Dimensions and Dilemmas | | | | | CULTURE AND ORGANISATIONS | | | 4 | Culture and Corporate Structures, Styles of Management and Leadership | | 5 | Culture, Corporate Strategy and Change | | 6 | Cultural Diversity and Conflicts | | | | | CULTURE AND COMMUNICATION | | | 7 | Business Communication and Barriers to Intercultural Communication | | 8 | Develop Intercultural Communication and Negotiation Competencies | | 9 | Working with International Teams | | 10 | Revision | Learning and Teaching Approaches Within this module there is a variety of learning and teaching approaches adopted to ensure each student can fully engage with the module material. The learning journey within the module is divided into four stages: [pic] Stage 1: Knowledge Input through the Lectures Each week the lecture will introduce the models, frameworks and issues associated with the topic for that week. The lectures will also include a variety of activities to develop understanding of the subject material [pic] Stage 2: Understanding and application of Knowledge through the Seminars Each week the seminars will develop on the understanding of the topic from the lecture through a series of activities based on working in learning sets. Within each seminar there will be four learning sets, where you will work on activities in the seminar together and also lead one of the seminars during the module. The learning set will also be the group you will complete the phase 2 of the assessment with. [pic] Stage 3: Enhancing Learning through the VLE As an ongoing support to the learning journey a number of VLE activities will be available through Sunspace, WIMBA and WIMBA Pronto these include: – Discussion Boards – WIMBA Pronto On-line Surgeries – WIMBA Virtual Classroom activities in Learning Sets – WIMBA Presentation lecture tasters each week – WIMBA Podcasts for assessment guidance and support – MAHARA [pic] Stage 4: Supporting your learning through Self-Directed Study For each topic there will be a selection of readings to enhance and develop your understanding. The readings will be a selection of articles and where appropriate text books. [pic] Stage 5: Reviewing the Module Feedback from students is obtained at the end of Module delivery and any suggestions for improvement are used to continue developing the module. Relevant Documentation 1. Student Handbook and the Faculty Information page is available on https://docushare. sunderland. ac. uk/docushare/dsweb/View/Collection-2779 2. The University’s Academic Regulations is available on https://docushare. sunderland. ac. uk/docushare/dsweb/View/Collection-2780 Learning Resources For this module there are numerous textbooks, periodicals and on-line sources. As the area of Cross Cultural Management is diverse and there are different perspectives on the subject material there will be a primary textbook, supported with a series of directed readings included in the module guide and a reading list per topic for self-directed study. Relevant Text-books Core Reading Browaeys, M-J and Price, R, (2011) Understanding Cross-Cultural Management (2nd Ed.), Harlow: Pearson Education Ltd Supplementary Reading Adler, N. J.(2001). International Dimensions of Organizational Behavior (4th ed.). Cincinnati: South-Western Gannon, M. J. (2002). Handbook of Cross-Cultural Management. Oxford, U. K.: Blackwell Publishers Ltd Guirdham, M. (2005) (2nd Ed.). Communicating Across Cultures. London: Macmillan. Hampden-Turner, C. and Trompenaars, F. (2002). Building Cross-Cultural Competence: How to create wealth from conflicting values. Chichester: Wiley & Sons Ltd Harris, P. R. & Moran, R. T.(2000). Managing Cultural Differences (5th ed.). Houston: Gulf Publishing Walker, D., Walker, T. and Scmitz, J. (2003). The Guide to Cross-Cultural Success: Doing Business Internationally. U. S. A.: McGraw-Hill Relevant Periodicals Cross Cultural Management by Emerald Expectations of Students The professional expectations necessary for an excellent student experience. The Postgraduate Programme Studies Board of the Business School is responsible for the proper conduct of Degree Programmes within their area of responsibility. Having considered all the issues relating to a successful student experience, the Board of Study have determined that the following principles should be adhered to by all students following a programme of study with the Business School. 1. Students are responsible for correctly complying with the requirements of their academic timetable. They are responsible for noting correctly the dates, times and venue of lectures, seminars and other activities and should check regularly Notice Boards and Sunspace sites for any timetable changes. 2. Students should arrive at the lecture theatre or classroom prior to the published start time. If students arrive more than 10 minutes late they will not be permitted to participate in that particular session and should not expect any additional support from their Lecturer for that particular session unless they can establish good cause for their late arrival to the satisfaction of their Lecturer. 3. Students are required to complete the specified self-directed learning relating to their module and programme. In preparation for they are expected to complete the prescribed reading and prior study. In the event of not completing the necessary preparation a Lecturer may request a student to leave a seminar so as not to hinder the learning of other students. 4. Students are expected to conduct themselves in a responsible and courteous manner which does not cause risk, distress or fear to others, or hinder the Business School’s proper operation or damage its reputation. Examples of misconduct include: a) Disruption of academic, administrative, or other activities of the Business School; b) Sexual, racial, physical or other harassment, or behaviour which causes fear or distress to others; threatening, abusive, disorderly or unreasonable behaviour; behaviour which contravenes the University’s principles of dignity and respect or is a form of harassment or bullying. 5. Students will be expected to complete all required forms of assessment relating to their programme of study. In this regard they are expected to strictly comply with all University and Business School Rules and Regulations as set out in Programme and Module Student Handbooks available on the University website and Sunspace VLE. It is a student’s responsibility to ensure that they are familiar with the contents of their Programme and Module Handbooks. 6. In the event of the above requirements not being adequately complied with then the relevant University Rules and Regulations may be invoked in order to ensure an excellent student experience by other students. Session 1: Determinants and Dimensions of Culture [pic] Stage 1: Knowledge Input through the Lecture This session will introduce the diverse definitions as to what constitutes culture. Culture is seen as something which is not inherited but is instead a code of attitudes, norms and values, and a way of thinking which is learnt within a social environment. This way of thinking is shared by all individuals in a particular society which makes culture what it is. The notion of culture is an important element of organisations. Various models will be introduced and a critique offered of these models. A meta-configuration is introduced to cluster the cornucopia of cultures in terms of the similarities. Stage 2: Understanding and application of Knowledge through the Seminar In your PALS groups you will come prepared to discuss and debate the following questions: Questions: – In which ways do the meanings of culture differ? – Can a corporate culture be managed? – What are the advantages and limitations of using dimensions to describe cultures? – Which of the dimensions introduced do you consider to be most relevant to the study of culture in the business context? Explain your choice. Activity 1 – Introduction and ice breaker – Ask participants to write down the most important thing about themselves in 25 words or less; specifically, write what they would want people to remember about them of them after the completion of this programme. – Have participants read their introductions to others in smaller groups. – Ask students to compare their introduction with that of others. – Focus discussions on how introductions reflect cultural values, value of relationships, emphasis on achievement, etc. – Discuss what the various introductions reflect about specific cultures. Activity 2 In your groups, select an organisation you are familiar with and try to answer the following questions: 1. What are the basic assumptions within the organisation? 2. Where do you think these assumptions come from? 3. To what extent could the national culture have an influence on the organisational behaviour of this company? (For examples refer to page 20 of the core text) Activity 3 — Looking Ahead In your groups, using the cultural dimensions outlined by Hofstede, identify the dimensions of the cultures in your groups. Identify the similarities and differences between the cultures and discuss the possible effect in a business context. Your findings are to be presented during the next seminar. Case Study 1 Refer to page 21 of the core text and in your groups answer the questions. Debate as a main group. Case Study 2 Refer to page 45 of the core text. Stage 3: Enhancing Learning through the VLE During this week engage with each other on sunspace and get to know your fellow students. Experiment with using sunspace as a means of sharing your learning with each other. Stage 4: Supporting your learning through Self-Directed Study For this session, the following readings will support the student’s learning: Chapters 1 and 2 from the core reader. Session 2: Business Cultures Across the World [pic] Stage 1: Knowledge Input through the Lecture This session will discuss the characteristics which bring together countries in a number of clusters within the western and eastern half of the GLOBE meta-configuration. The similarities and the dissimilarities between the clusters, such as culture, history, geography and religion, will be introduced. Furthermore, insight into the cultural factors identified will be discussed in relation to how these influence work-related values and business practices. Stage 2: Understanding and application of Knowledge through the Seminar In your PALS groups you will come prepared to discuss and debate the following questions: Questions: – What do you consider to be the reasons for giving Anglosaxonisation such attention? – Do you think the whole continent of America could be seen as having one business culture? – To what extent do you believe religion plays an important role in the business cultures of China and India? – How do you account for the contrasts observed in sub-Sahara Africa? Could the Middle East be characterised in the same way? Explain why. Activity 1 Groups to present the cultural dimensions identified in their groups. Activity 2 From the understanding of cultural differences introduced in this session, discuss the similarities and differences you have identified in your groups and the impact these may have in a business context. Activity 3 — Looking Ahead Prepare the following in your groups in readiness to be presented and discussed during the next seminar. Discover British values by analysing advertisements, cartoons, well-known figures, television series, etc. Identify values which may be similar to that of the cultures represented in your groups as well as those which are different. Present your findings during the next session. Case Study 1 Refer to page 71 of the core text and in your groups answer the questions. Debate as a main group. Case Study 2 Refer to page 95 of the core text and in your groups answer the questions. Debate as a main group. Stage 3: Enhancing Learning through the VLE To be determined Stage 4: Supporting your learning through Self-Directed Study For this session, the following readings will support the student’s learning: Chapters 3 and 4 from the core text. Session 3: Cultural Dimensions and Dilemmas [pic] Stage 1: Knowledge Input through the Lecture This session introduces the concept of value orientations with a particular focus on the overview of Trompenaars’ dimensions and the ensuing dilemmas a manager may encounter in an intercultural environment. The session also explores how cultural differences can be reconciled. Stage 2: Understanding and application of Knowledge through the Seminar In your PALS groups you will come prepared to discuss and debate the following questions: Questions: – Why do you think many researchers of cross cultural management refer to authors in the field of social sciences? – In which ways do the two sets of dimensions introduced in the session differ? To what extent do they resemble each other? – Referring to Trompenaar’s reconciliation methods as a way of dealing with opposing values, to what extent do you believe this method can be used to resolve possible dilemmas? Activity 1 Each group to present the British values they have identified and discuss findings as a group. Activity 2 In your groups, discuss the differences you have encountered in your groups and how you have resolved them. Identify any unresolved differences and identify how the Trompenaar’s model could facilitate reconciliation of these differences. Case Study 1 Refer to page 113 of the core text and in your groups answer the questions. Debate as a main group. Stage 3: Enhancing Learning through the VLE To be identified Stage 4: Supporting your learning through Self-Directed Study For this session, the following readings will support the student’s learning: Chapter 5 of the core text. Session 4: Culture and Corporate Structures, Styles of Management and Leadership [pic] Stage 1: Knowledge Input through the Lecture Organisational structures are not independent of culture but an element of the organisation’s culture. This session will discuss how new forms of organisational structure emerge according to the influence of cultural differences. Cultural values also influence everyday business activities such as management and leadership. Many of the theories associated with such business activities originate from the West. This session will explore the influence of Eastern ideas on them and the assumptions shared across all cultures. Stage 2: Understanding and application of Knowledge through the Seminar In your PALS groups you will come prepared to discuss and debate the following questions: – What does structure and culture have in common? – What is the possible purpose of organisational culture? – What are the cultural values that could affect management and leadership? – What is needed for both a manager and leader to perform effectively within a cross-cultural context? – Characteristics of female managers and leaders make them effective in different cultures. However, some multinationals tend not to give serious consideration to female candidates for such positions, for example the Middle East. Why do you think that is and what is the impact on the organisation? Activity 1 In your groups come to apply the concepts discussed in this session as follows: – What discussions and negotiations did you as a group enter into to determine an acceptable leadership model in your group? – How did the preferences reflect your respective cultures? – How would you describe their leadership style in your group? – What are the strengths and weaknesses of this style? Case Study 1 Refer to page 170 of the core text and in your groups answer the questions. Debate as a main group. Case Study 2 Refer to page 190 of the core text and in your groups answer the questions. Debate as a main group. Stage 3: Enhancing Learning through the VLE Stage 4: Supporting your learning through Self-Directed Study For this session, the following readings will support the student’s learning: Chapter 6, 7 and 8 of the core text. Session 5: Culture, Corporate Strategy and Change [pic] Stage 1: Knowledge Input through the Lecture Strategy is found in all areas of management. Organisational as well as national cultures play a significant role in influencing and establishing organisational strategy. The influence of culture is particularly relevant in international mergers and acquisitions. Strategy is perceived as a product of culture by some. However, culture can also be seen as a product of strategy. Culture and strategy are therefore inextricably linked. Whichever perspective is adopted, for the organisation to be successful and survive they need to adapt their culture accordingly. This session will also explore whether an international corporate culture is possible. Stage 2: Understanding and application of Knowledge through the Seminar In your PALS groups you will come prepared to discuss and debate the following questions: – What is the role culture plays in defining strategy? – How can two organisational cultures be united while ensuring that their duality is maintained? – Identify the tensions between national and organisational cultures in the change process. – Is it possible to change organisational cultures? Activity 1 In your groups identify the changes in technology over the last 10 years: – Changes that transcends culture – Impact on culture Case Study 1 Refer to page 207 of the core text and in your groups answer the questions. Debate as a main group. Case Study 2 Refer to page 227 of the core text and in your groups answer the questions. Debate as a main group. Stage 3: Enhancing Learning through the VLE To be provided. Stage 4: Supporting your learning through Self-Directed Study For this session, the following readings will support the student’s learning: Chapters 9 and 10 of the core text. Session 6: Cultural Diversity and Conflicts [pic] Stage 1: Knowledge Input through the Lecture Organisations have different attitudes towards how they deal with diversity. This session will identify the skills managers need to manage cultural differences within a global environment. Cultural diversity may lead to conflict and the way conflict is dealt with is influenced by the cultural background and experience of those involved. Furthermore, culture influences the way in which people communicate with each other during conflict. Stage 2: Understanding and application of Knowledge through the Seminar In your PALS groups you will come prepared to discuss and debate the following questions: – Discuss the role cultural diversity plays in the globalisation of organisations. – What do you consider the key skills to be when managing cultural diversity? – What are the sources of conflict within an organisation? – How do you perceive the notion of conflict? – How can a manager prevent a crisis from happening? Activity 1 In your groups, identify the differences you have encountered within your groups and discuss the following: – Identify the diversity which have the potential to lead to conflict – The cultural influence that has lead to the differences – What have been the consequences of such diversity? – How, if at all, have you dealt with the diversity? – In hindsight, how could you have managed it more effectively? – What lessons can you draw from it which would help you within an organisational setting? Activity 2 http://www. youtube. com/watch? v= RwDDb_h2i0A – How does your culture deal with emotion in conflict? – How does that vary from the other cultures in your groups? – How could such difference lead to misunderstanding and conflict? – How can it be avoided? Case Study 1 Refer to page 362 of the core text and in your groups answer the questions. Debate as a main group. Stage 3: Enhancing Learning through the VLE To be determined. Stage 4: Supporting your learning through Self-Directed Study For this session, the following readings will support the student’s learning: Chapters 12 and 17 of the core text. Session 7: Business Communication and Barriers to Intercultural Communication [pic] Stage 1: Knowledge Input through the Lecture As an international manager it is necessary to be able to operate at an international level and deal with other cultures appropriately. This requires the ability to communicate and work together with business partners from other cultures. The intricacies of cultural diversity may possibly lead to barriers of the communication process resulting to a breakdown in communication due to either too much information or too little. Alternatively, it can be caused by communication that is misplaced, inaccurate or incomplete. The context of communication is further complicated by cultural diversity which leads to misunderstandings when the sender and receiver do not share similar meanings for the communicated symbols. Stage 2: Understanding and application of Knowledge through the Seminar In your PALS groups you will come prepared to discuss and debate the following questions: – The different components that have an influence on the process of communication – The role of communication in business practices identify the factors that can influence the outcome of an intercultural interaction – What are the obstacles to intercultural communication? – How can stereotypes aid the communication process? Activity 1 In your PLSG groups: – Identify different forms of communication – What are the preferred forms and styles of communication of the cultures in your group? – Identify cultural differences that will impact on your communications – In what way will those differences influence your communications? Activity 2 In your groups: – Identify non-verbal forms of communications – What are the differences between the cultures in your group? – Think of examples in your groups where the difference has caused possible breakdown in communication – How have you dealt with it to overcome differences? Activity 3 In your groups share and discuss the stereotypes you had of the British before coming to the UK. How have you revised and updated these stereotypes? What are the stereotypes that the British would have of your cultures? Case Study 1 Refer to page 295 of the core text and in your groups answer the questions. Debate as a main group. Stage 3: Enhancing Learning through the VLE Additional reading material will be provided on sunspace as pre-reading to the seminar. Stage 4: Supporting your learning through Self-Directed Study For this session, the following readings will support the student’s learning: Chapters 13 and 14 of the core text. Session 8: Negotiating Internationally [pic] Stage 1: Knowledge Input through the Lecture Following on from earlier sessions on cross-cultural communication, this session will focus on the particular aspects related to communication during the process of negotiation. The nature of negotiation from different cultural perspectives will be considered and compared with each other for the purpose of examining where possible problems in the interaction processes may occur. This session also provides a framework which can be used to address the issue of strategy adaptation when negotiating with counterparts from other cultures. Stage 2: Understanding and application of Knowledge through the Seminar In your PALS groups you will come prepared to discuss and debate the following questions: – How may the perception of negotiation differ from culture to culture? – How may these different perceptions influence the negotiation process and the eventual results? – What are the tactics which can be employed in cross-cultural negotiations? Activity 1 http://www. youtube. com/watch? v= 9fSWEUhaJ94 http://www. youtube. com/watch? v=-4GjC0ipJIA&feature= results_video&playnext= 1&list= PLE5A072A96A84059C Discuss video clips in your groups. How can these concepts help negotiations and communication in your groups? Activity 2 Refer to page 329 of the core text. Stage 3: Enhancing Learning through the VLE To be determined Stage 4: Supporting your learning through Self-Directed Study For this session the following readings will support the student’s learning: Chapter 15 of the core text. Session 9: Working with International Teams [pic] Stage 1: Knowledge Input through the Lecture The final session focuses on international teams and identifying how the different cultural backgrounds of team members influence the behaviour and composition of team working in organisations. The session will begin by identifying the nature of teams and the elements involved such as roles in the composition of global teams. The session will also discuss the increasingly importance role of virtual teams within international organisations. Stage 2: Understanding and application of Knowledge through the Seminar In your PALS groups you will come prepared to discuss and debate the following questions: – What are the cultural factors that will influence team working in organisations? – What is the role of communication in the management of teams? – To what extent is it necessary for the leader of a multi-cultural team to be familiar with the cultures of each team member? – What role does language play in resolving possible problems in the communication of international teams? Activity 1 In your groups: – Complete the questionnaire for your own cultures. – How do your approaches vary? – What are the implications for team working? – Evidence in your groups experience – How can you create compromises? Activity 2 Using the Johari window as a framework identify what you have discovered in your groups about both your own and the culture of others during this semester. Give examples to demonstrate your findings and also how beliefs may have helped or hindered your group activities. Case Study 1 Refer to page 344 of the core text and answer questions in your groups. Stage 3: Enhancing Learning through the VLE To be determined Stage 4: Supporting your learning through Self-Directed Study For this session the following readings will support the student’s learning: Chapter 16 of the core text. Session 10: Revision [pic] This session will consist of the sharing your learning journey throughout the module. The session will also be dedicated to revision of the module in readiness for the second part of the assessment. Assessment Part One — A 1200 word essay. (30% of final marks). Consider the situation of a Senior Manager of a Swedish Global business that is planning to set up a new manufacturing business unit in Brazil: 1. Carry out an analysis of the cultural issues that will need to be addressed using some appropriate key dimensions from both Hofstede’s and Trompenaars’ models. 2. Identify the most important dimension that you believe will need to be actively managed in this context, giving reasons. Part Two — 2800 word written report. You are to produce a report answering both questions below. In both parts you will reflect on your personal experience during the module. The report will analyse your experiences by applying the relevant academic theories and concepts covered during the module. Although you will draw on your reflections and experiences of cross cultural differences, you must relate your experiences to that of the theories covered during the module. Question One (approximately 2000 words) (50% of final marks). You will need to address the following areas: 1. The Application of Cross-Cultural Theory and Concepts to the PALS groups. Your group has provided you with the opportunity to reflect on the practical application of the cross cultural theories and the opportunity of experiencing cultural differences. Analyse your experiences of cultural similarities and differences, based on your PLSG, by drawing on the relevant theory. 2. Focus on Self. How I felt about what was happening to me during the course and in the group. What affect the group had on me. What I learned about my own behaviour. What influence I had on the group. 3. Focus on Other Individuals. The effect each individual had on the group and the group on him or her, and how I felt about it. 4. Focus on Interactions. The interactions and relationships between members of the group, what effect these had on the group, and how I felt about it. 5. Focus on Cultural Diversity. The impact of an experience. Choose an experience (or experiences) that was (were) significant to you. Describe it (“ who”, “ what”, “ when”, “ where”, “ how” type information). Perform Reflective Observation (describe your feelings, perceptions and thoughts). Look at the experience from different points of view. Question Two (approximately 800 words) (20% of final marks). Imagine the cross-cultural group you participated in during the semester was a cross cultural team within a global organisation. Reflecting on your experiences over the semester, what would you do to improve your own effectiveness? What would your recommendations be in terms of developing and improving the effectiveness of the group? (Be specific). SUBMISSION OF ASSESSMENT Dead Line for Part One: Monday 5th November 2012. Dead Line for Part Two: Thursday 13th December 2012 at 1. 00 p. m. Both parts of the assessment will need to be submitted via TURNITIN and a printed copy submitted at the library. [pic] Assessment Guidance [pic] What we look for is quality such as the following: 1. Intensive Application of Course Concepts and theories. For instance, in writing on cross-cultural relations and its possible effect on subgroups within your group, diagrams can be drawn to show the relationships that occurred. The diagrams may show how subgroups changed over time. What caused the subgroups to occur, in your estimation? What was the effect on the group action? If negative, was any effort made to change it? 2. Illustrations from Exercises to Support Your Conclusions. For instance, “ During the cross-cultural exercise, Mary and John (from similar cultural backgrounds) were so strong in insisting on their answers that their views prevailed. Unfortunately, their suggestions proved to be wrong. Two other members of our group, from a different cultural background, had better answers, but their input was never solicited. During the next exercise we made sure we got an input from everyone before reaching a decision”. 3. Extensive Application. To what degree did the report cover a wide range of course concepts? How thoroughly did it do so? In addition, we do get an impression as to whether or not real learning seems to have taken place as we read through the paper. We expect that everyone will be thinking of her or his own growth in cross-cultural skills and understanding, and that this will be reflected in the discussion within each report. MARKING CRITERIA Grade A (70 – 100%) A creative and original reflective essay. Critically reflecting on personal experiences. Extensive use of course theory where appropriate as well as use of examples. Deep, personal reflection is imperative. Essay presented and written fluently, with evidence of a highly developed capacity to structure work systematically and argue logically. Acute self-awareness of scope and limits, drawing on the strengths of their personal experience and an awareness of the weaknesses. Ability to plan, carry out and evaluate own work with little or no guidance. Grade B (55 – 69%) Ability to inter-relate concepts and ideas and drawing on personal reflection and experience. Some originality in approach and awareness of scope and limitations. Reflective essay systematically structured and coherent. Independence in planning and carrying out work. Grade C (40 – 54%) Main issues addressed appropriately. Ideas presented in a structured form but arguments weak in places. Limited self-awareness and critical reflection and little application of course theories. Some evidence of independence in planning and carrying out work. Grade F (0 – 39%) Some knowledge of main concepts but major omissions and/or misunderstandings. No use of course theories. Style and structure weak, overly descriptive and weakly communicated. Arguments poorly supported and little or no analysis and reflection. No awareness that different perspectives exist. Limited or no evidence of engagement with and learning from the course nor any evidence of personal awareness. Refer to the relevant generic criteria at https://docushare. sunderland. ac. uk/docushare/dsweb/Get/Document-3101/AQH-B5+Generic+Assessment+Creteria. pdf Work submitted must be the work of the student. Please refer to the University regulations on plagiarism as well as the regulations related to Mitigation