Two: defense of plate tectonics

Defense of Plate Tectonics The earth’s surface consists of a series of large plates that are in constant motion traveling some few centimeters every year (Anderson 26). Additionally, the ocean floors such as the Pacific plate that is in contact with solid dense rock beneath it, are continually moving, spreading from the center and shrinking at the edges (Anderson 26). Tectonic plates move in different directions, and this movement is caused by convectional current happening beneath these plates. The energy driving convectional current is as a result of radioactive decay that is taking place deep in the Earth (Anderson 27).
The existence and movement of tectonic plates is natural phenomena that are unnoticeable. However, other volcanic and vulcanic land forming processes such as magma generation, metamorphism, faulting, folding, earthquake, igneous intrusions, and volcanic actions are usually as a result of plate tectonic activities (Frankel 54). Another evidence for the existence and movement of plate tectonics is the existence of six large pieces (six continents) and other twenty other small pieces such as Hawaii, Lanai, Oahu, Niihau, Molokai and Kahoolawe (Frankel 54). Scientists hypothesize that plate tectonic movements began breaking a single continent land mass into smaller and bigger pieces in about 200 million years ago (Monroe 36). Convectional currents originating deep inside the Earth pushed and pulled these plates at the surface creating a diverging plate boundary. A plume of hot magma originating deep within the mantle then pushed the crust creating pressure that caused the single continent to split and separate (Monroe 37). Other types of plate boundaries include convergent, transform and plate boundary zones.
In conclusion, the Earth’s crust is made up of a series of plates that are in constant movements either away or towards each other. Most of the volcanic eruptions and earthquakes occur near or along tectonic boundaries. This is because these processes are caused by melting, pushing, scraping, and pulling of the Earth’s surface along tectonic plate boundaries.
Works Cited
Anderson, Michael. Investigating Plate Tectonics, Earthquakes, and Volcanoes. New York: Britannica Educational Pub. in association with Rosen Educational Services, 2012. Print.
Frankel, Henry R. The Continental Drift Controversy. Cambridge [England: Cambridge University Press, 2012. Print.
Monroe J. S, Reed W, Richard H. Physical Geology: Exploring the Earth; [the Wrath of Hurricane Katrina; Could You Survive a Tsunami?; Catastrophic Earthquakes; Global Warming]. Belmont [u. a.: Thomson, 2006. Print.