The democratization of the web information technology essay

During this last years, the democratization of the web has led many changes in societies. The business organization has changed to become more competitive while consumers have seen their purchasing process dematerialized. Businesses, consumers, customers, students, parents, children etc., have been, to a greater or lesser extent, affected by this change. This trend is more and more inked in people’s lives, both at personal or professional purposes. Nowadays, we hear about the Web 2. 0 more and more. Term coined by Dale Dougherty of O’Reilly Media in 2004, it is often used to refer what is perceived as an important transition of the World Wide Web, from a collection of websites to a unique computing platform, providing Web applications to users. Proponents of this view argue that ” Web 2. 0″ benefits will gradually replace traditional desktop applications. More than a technology, it is in fact a concept of sharing information. Indeed, Web 2. 0 or the Internet use, aiming at enhancing the user and his relationships with others, has changed the rules of communication. Today, speaking around a brand no longer belongs to the company. ” 25% of online content about a company or brand come from its website. The other three quarters come from various media including websites, portals, blogs, comments, forums, newspapers participatory, social networks like Facebook or Twitter” describes Emmanuel Bachellerie, Director of the Public Relations of the group Ligaris. Media and social networks have been added to traditional media: everyone can produce information and especially to comment and to share. LinkedIn, Viadeo, but also forums, participatory newspapers, collaborative encyclopedias, blogs, platforms of broadcasting content (YouTube, Dailymotion, Flickr) are new forms of expression which have their own code of language, use and working process. Thus, any users becomes a producer, and a broadcaster of information. Thus, to cope with new challenges engendered by the internet, businesses are trying to adapt to these new tools: becoming more competitive facing the competition, multiplying its channels of communication aiming at reaching its public, being aligned with other companies which use these new practices of work, etc.. Meanwhile, the arrival of Generation Y in the workplace disrupts the codes of the company while businesses are shaken by new technologies as well. They are nicknamed ” Generation Y” because they succeed the Generation X, who they were born between 1979 and 1994 and aged from19 to 34 years old. Although the Xers experienced the Cold War, Generation Y has grown up with the globalization, the unemployment and the Internet. These individuals are more connected to the world, more individualistic than their eldest and less attached to the company for which they work. As well, they do not hesitate to change company when it no longer meets their expectations although they know the difficulties to enter the labour market. The individuals coming from the generation are motivated by the job in itself than the prestige of the company. Indeed, the economic context has changed their relationship with the company. According to Francois de Wazières, international Human Resources Director at L’Oréal, it is the most ‘challenging’ generation because it calls into question all the management methods and force businesses to rethink about their models models. Indeed, having grown up with the Internet and the emergence of new technologies, they expect to use these new modes of communication within companies. Businesses, they must cope with these new behaviours and attitudes. It appears that companies should understand and address these issues and challengesAccording to Brillet, Coutelle and Hulin (2012), generation Y refers to all the individuals born between 1979 and 1994. It is also the individuals a given context share the same history with similar experiences. This helps distinguish homogeneous sub-groups within the generation Y that is the notion of cohort (set of individuals having experienced an similar event during the same period of time). F. Brillet, P. Coutelle and A. Hulin, differentiate two cohorts within the generation Y: individuals who are already employed, and those who are still in a context of professional education or studies. Generally, Gen Y is characterized by the need to give a meaning to their work, as a key characteristic for their employment whereby they want to work for something important (Hyatt, 2001; Eisner, 2005; Yeaton, 2008). They also want to get fulfilled in their work (Eisner, 2005; Laize and Pougnet, 2007; Yeaton, 2008; Erickson et al., 2009; Josiam and al., 2009; APEC, 2009), they expect feedbacks in which the relationship with their manager is essential: their needs are formulated in a gift/counter gift logic (Eisnerr, 2005; Yeaton, 2008; Erickson and al., 2009; Josiam and al., KPMG, 2010; Bourhis and Chênevert, 2010). Besides, a well-balanced life is another features of Gen Y: although they give a priority to their personal life, the work involvement is not diminished. Boundaries between personal and professional life become more and more permeable and less identifiable. (Eisner, 2005; Laize and Pougnet, 2007; Yeaton, 2008; Erickson and al., 2009; Josiam and al., 2009). Moreover, the Gen Y favours opportunism, which consists in acting according to the circumstances of the moment in order to use it as much as possible for their own interests (Eisner, 2005; Laize and Pougnet, 2007; Yeaton, 2008; Erickson and al., 2009; Josiam and al., 2009). They are also motivated by teamwork aiming at developing strong relationships in which the search for social ties is important. Web 2. 0 has led new modes of communication intended to favour the emergence of a community in which individuals can express themselves and be recognized. However, Gen Y are individualistic consumers who keep zapping even though the group is important (Tapscott, 1998; Zemke and al., 2000; Paré, 2002; Simard, 2007; Laize and Pougnet, 2007 Sullivan and Heitmeyer, 2008; Yeaton; Josiam and al., 2009). There exists also an organizational membership feeling relatively low compared with other generations (Laize and Pougnet, 2007; Sullivan and Heitmeyer, 2008; Yeaton, 2008; Josiam and al., 2009). A feeling of immediacy marks the temporality of Gen Y where it is difficult to look to the future (Pelton and True, 2004; Laize and Pougnet, 2007; Sullivan and Heitmeyer, 2008; Erickson, 2009). Finally, this generation is born with the TIC, involving individuals in virtual communities and reinforcing its way of expression in which the Internet is not only a simple information tool but also a means of communication and meeting aimed at creating social ties (Eisner, 2005; Sullivan and Heitmeyer, 2008; Kimberly, 2009; APEC, 2009). Gen Y expectations at workBrillet F., Coutelle P., and Hulin A., have conducted a study, which analyzes the managers’ perception of the Gen Y at work. The results show that a well-balanced life is still true, where boundaries become more and more vague partly due to the TIC. Indeed, they also work at home as well as they sometimes do other thing at work. The study reveals that although Gen Y have an individualist behaviour, they cannot be alone as well, one of the paradox of their attitude. Concerning the differences between generations, managers do not perceive it as strong. Gen Y values seem to be equal even though their mode of expression is different. The study confirms also that Gen Y, seek for recognition and look for feedbacks from the hierarchy if managers want to win the Millenials loyalty. However, it appears that they do not hesitate to leave the company if they feel bored or if opportunities come out. The seeking for social ties appears again as well as the skills development. Nonetheless, the companies think about an intergenerational cohabitation because of existing misunderstandings such as values, the way of working and the relationship with new technologies. Then, more than three quarters of managers state that they use the tutelage to manage these issues. Finally, the welfare at work is an important criterion, in which feeling comfortable at work is important. Intergenerational cohabitation at the workplaceThe Baby Boomers, born between 1946 and 1966, and aged between 47-67 (Zemke and al., 2000) are beginning now to retire. Facing this change, managers focus more and more on Generation X-ers, born between 1967 and 1978, and aged between 35-46 (Saba, 2009, p. 26) and Generation Y-ers, born between 1979 and 1994, and aged between 19-34 (Brillet F., Coutelle P., Hulin A.)Figure X: To illustrate differences between Generation Y and Baby Boomers / Generation XSource: A. Headworth, ” Managing Gen Y’ers is so much more complex!” August 29, 2008 http://blog. sironaconsulting. com/sironasays/2008/08/managing-gen-ye. htmlBefore recruiting and retaining people from these two generations, managers need to understand what differences exist in a working environment: 10 different workplace differences between the X and Y generations are quoted by Krista Third of Tamm Communications (2007) through this board:

Gen Y

Gen X

Preferred style of leadership

Collaboration with management is expectedOnly competent leaders will do

Value of Experience

Experience is irrelevant, as the world is changing so fastDon’t tell me where you have been, show me what you know


Questions, questions, questionsGive them direction, and then leave to it


Need constant and immediate feedbackExpect regular feedback


Money talksFreedom is the ultimate reward


Still in an exam driven mentalityWant to continually learn, if they don’t they will leave

Work hours

Will work as long as needed… or until they get boredDo their work and go home

Work life balance

Their lives are busy – they need a lot of ” me” timeThey want to enjoy life to the full, while they are young enough to do so


Already working out their exit strategyThey are committed as everyone else working there

Meaning of money

Just something that allows them to maintain their lifestyleIt gives freedom and independenceAbout the Internet, Reisenwitz and Iyer (Marketing Management Journal, Fall 2009) argue that Gen Xers are technologically savvy and they highly prefer to use the Web and e-mail business communication, being credited with moving the Internet into the mainstream. As well as the Gen X, Gen Yers are computer savvy, more comfortable with technology (Auby 2008). Compared with Gen Xers, the Millenials are the first generation to use collaboration tools (mobile phones, email, text messaging, Bluetooth, computers) according to Tyler (2008), which allow them to resolve issues and to diminish the learning curve. They are characterized as multitasking people or a generation of multimedia, whose the Internet consumption is much more important than their television consumption (Barnikel, 2005). Towards a study conducted by Reisenwitz and Iyer, they confirm that Gen Y members have a better satisfaction with the Internet than Gen Xers. 2. Generation Y and its technological preferencesa) Technological preferences of gen Y and its usesThe generation Y technologies preferences are essentially based on social media. According to the Pew Research Center for the People and the Press (2007), the use of social networking sites has become increasingly popular among Gen Yers in recent years. Indeed, 54% of the individuals being from the generation Y have used one or more social networking websites such as Facebook and MySpace. According to Sydney Jones and Susannah Fox (” Teens and Generation Y find entertainment and social network online”; Jan 28, 2009), they use the Internet for entertainment and for communicating with friends and family. As well, they seek for entertainment through online videos and online games and download music and video. Besides, they are more likely than older users to read other people’s blogs and to write their own. They also use social networking sites and create profiles more than previous generations. These Internet users often use personal blogs to update their lives, and use social networking sites to communicate with friends. Source: F. Cavazza, ” Social Media Landscape” June 9, 2008 , www. fredcavazza. netb) Gen Y Technological preferences expected at workAccording to Karen Altes (2009), important changes are taking place at the workplace in addition to the unpredictable economy. Although companies are reluctant to give access to social media and fear losing control of what people say about them, they are obliged to adapt to the evolution of the market. Indeed, it exists a generational shift in the workforce and in the way people use technology to communicate. Generation Y has a different approach to work and communication compared with their predecessors, paying a great attention on networking through social media. Indeed, social media allows them to see, share and exchange information creating collaboration and user-generated content. At the same time, both private and professional usage of social media and collaborative web becomes more and more important. As the Generation Y is computer savvy and comfortable with a great understanding of technology, which makes them more likely to take part in social media, Altes claims that Gen Y workers will entail a rise in the use of social media in businesses. In the same way as Karen Altes states that collaboration and communication among an organization is essential. Jason Ewell (teacher assistant in facilities at property management at Brigham Young University in Provo) argues that Google groups (discussions groups based on common interests) enable to structure and to broadcast information among team members. Indeed, relationships characterize the interactions between the company and its stakeholders (workforce, customers, suppliers, divisions, organizations). In parallel, social media build and maintain relationships since the company’s brand is established through the interactions within the organization. Indeed, because Gen Y have grown with technology and uses these tools in their daily life, and even in their studies, which have shaped the way they interact with others, they expect to use it in their workplace. Particularly, they perceive social media as efficient. It should not be considered as an obstacle for businesses but rather an opportunity for Gen Y to teach those tools to others, and then, improve communication with everybody. According to Sam Kelly, a facility and property management student at Brigham Young University, social media such as Facebook, Linked In and blogging enable people to get connected (such as past collaborators) by asking question and/or looking for resourceful solutions. Indeed, for example, Facebook is not just a way to be entertained, but social media allow collaboration with peers and co-workers thank to instant feedbacks produced. Moreover, freedom defines what the social media model is: contents, ideas, information published by an individual are judged as well as within the workplace, Gen Y needs to be assessed on their work. Then, technologies such as social media and collaborative tools are going to take a place more and more important at work. To meet these challenges, businesses have to take advantage of Gen Y knowledge and expectations.


1. Changes impose new technologies on businesses

a. Historical changesLike the Industrial Revolution in the 19th century which brought deep changes in the production process, companies have experienced several and consecutive organizational evolutions too during the 20th. Some British historians call this phenomenon, ” revolution administrative” (Gardey D., 2001). Since the writing machine, allowing the development of ” massive writing” to the telegrapher (1842), these changes have modified the way we communicate while the development in applied mathematic activities during the 20th encouraged a more accelerated development in the computer field. During the 90’s, organizations have begun to develop the use of new communication tools (electronic mail, Visio conference) (Kalika M. et al, 2003; Wasson C., 2004). NTIC have lead important productivity since 30 years (Destais G. et Gillot-Chappaz A., 2000; Askenazy Ph., 2004)The introduction of the microcomputer has boosted information flows within and outside businesses becoming progressively the work and information process tool. With the internal networking in the 90’s, this micro-computer development has not only introduced new tools in offices but also transformed working conditions. The jobs modes evolve whereas others disappear and new ones appear. Particularly in the tertiary sector, these tools have become more familiar and more easy to use, since individuals work on production, transformation, dissemination and storage of information. Then, the micro-computer becomes a more and more sophisticated instrument allowing people to do multitasks: creation of texts, images, sounds; calculation on spread sheets, simulations on decision helping tools, communication through messaging service and cyberspace until the 2000’s. The arrival of the Internet has disrupted all the more the computer: we witness a convergence of technologies linked to the television (image), the radio and the disk (sound), telecommunications (telephone) and information technology (Breton Ph. 2004). As well, the communication escalates and diversifies and the telecommunication networking has become the broadcasting medium. These technological evolutions have led changes in organizations such as new form of work organizations (NFWO) (Charpentier P., 2007). b. Emergence of new forms of work organization (NFWO)According to Silva F. and Ben Ali A., (2010) communication is built around three parts: the dematerialisation of information (matching with the period of information systems development during the 1970-2000), the virtualisation of work (corresponding to the integration of relational and communication notions, such as New Form of Work Organization), and the contribution of Human Resources. New technologies become a structuring element in the organization of work as well as in its nature (Akoka. J. et Comyn-Wattiau I., 2006; Reich. R., 1996). Changes have modified work organization in the information management: delays are reduced; repetitive tasks are more and more automated (Comtet I.; 2006). As well, information systems can partially increase the number and the quality of information whereby each individual of a group has access and so, can improve the interpersonal collaboration thanks to a better information sharing. With the introduction of IT, the automation of activities, dealing with information, characterizes the working world. From information dematerialization to the communication, Vaast E., (2008) claims that all organizations, whether public or private, private or multinational, should work as a network in order to remain competitive in its own environment. Besides, the automation of activities has facilitated the sharing and the dissemination of information since the implementation of networking. Silva F. and Ben Ali A., (2010) state that the emergence of collaborative, virtual and ubique work appears more and more within the work organization. Cohen D. (2008) and Charpentier P., (2007), talk about new forms of work organizations (NFWO). Indeed, new technologies have dematerialized information, but also have generated new forms of interaction: it exists a virtualization of interpersonal relationships and allows ubique and collaborative work (Silva F. and Ben Ali A. 2010). Therefore, a new form of work organization appears in which the three pillars are ubiquity (being at several places at the same time), collaboration and virtuality; as many challenges that managers today must understand. According to Orlikowski W. (2000), the organization should know and should be able to align these principles based on these new technologies. Figure X: to illustrate key developments in ICTsocial_media_timeline-779402. jpgSource: idFive; ” A (somewhat incomplete) Timeline of Social media”, 2009, www. idfive. comNew challenges for businessesThe emergence of ICT (information and communication Technology) has generated new forms of work organization in businesses, and the generation Y is currently joining the labour market with different expectations and behaviour. Since there exist three generations, present on the labour market (the baby-boomers and mainly the generation X and the generation Y), this leads companies to meet new challenges in order to predict the management of tomorrow. Indeed, the main challenge today for managers is the cohabitation of different generations (Saba and al, 2010) because values and expectations differ (Smolla and Sutton, 2002). Organizations and internal marketers may assess the needs of new recruits by comparing their characteristics with those of previous generations (Reisenwitz and Iyer, 2009). If those different generations want to work together, it is necessary to abandon a one-style fits all approach (Hymowitz, 2007). Indeed, Reisenwitz and Iyer claim that Generation Y have greater satisfaction with the internet than members of Generation X. Managers have to take into account Gen Y’s technology preference in their businesses. Some companies have already understood this change: According to Andy Headworth (Managing Director & Social Recruiting Strategist at Sirona Consulting Ltd and author of Smart social Media Recruitment Strategies), Generation Y bring social media into organisations where many companies are recruiting as well Gen Y’ers just for technological skills. All these changes, social (Gen Y arrival on the labour market), economic (economic downturn) and technological (Web 2. 0) are urging managers to think differently. This is leading new formes of work in businesses. Indeed, management is entering the labour market. b. Web 2. 0 drives Management 2. 0Tim O’Reilly (2004) defines ” Web 2. 0″ as a three-dimensional entity: the first is technical which covers the use of technologies combination (ergonomic websites and user interfaces, Cascading Style Sheets, content syndication, Ajax, etc.) facilitating the Internet browsing. The second dimension is social due to the dissemination of information, the created interactions and the produced sharing among users, including blogs where visitors can comment posts, as well as wikis where users can modify and enrich published content. The third concerns collected data related to Web 2. 0 applications. The Web 2. 0 is a community giving the priority to services: stored data on web 2. 0 applications are accessible whatever the place and whatever the means to log on (computers, Smartphone, etc.) whereby users become more and more mobile. As well, the web 2. 0 has led a collaborative work and has changed the organization of businesses. Enterprise 1. 0Enterprise 2. 0Hierarchical organizationHorizontal organizationSeparationParticipationStrict and complex processFlexible and simple processHierarchical relationshipsNon hierarchical relationshipsKept informationShared informationWeb 1. 0 tools (email, institutional website)Web 2. 0 tools (social network, collaborative tools)Formal trainingE-learningFigure X: to illustrate the transition to web 1. 0 organization to web 2. 0 organizationSource: D. Fayon; C. Balagué, ” Facebook, Twitter et les autres…”, 2012Moreover, the crisis of the economic system, the crisis of the structures (in which the telecommunication boom has disrupted organizations) and the crisis of the values (in which the motivation is not longer fully present in our society) show dysfunctions. Thus, management has to be adapted because of those crises. Management methods (such as career, wages, discipline) become obsolete regarding the expectations of young generation and the rise of technology. These changes bring a new management, a management 2. 0. According to the website M2ie. fr (2012) management 2. 0 refers to the use of collaborative technologies in order to deal with management issues, thank to the collective intelligence (the capacity to work together aiming at achieving what people can not do alone J. F Noubel) of communities. Daniel Ollivier (author of Management 2. 0, Performance et Capital humain, 2011) gives a more detailed definition. Five features are identified: Identity: company necessarily have to clarify its reason of being, to give a meaning to its collective project and to specify its ethics. Transversality: projects become numerous which give way to cross-sectional activityContractualization: professional commitment is based on a ” win-win” contract, in which young recruits want to be satisfied of their expectations (personalization of their contributions, recognition of their merits etc.)Interactivity: development of collaborative work is promoted by efficient and user-friendly tools, in which the construction of a collective organization takes into account the variety of profilesInnovation: capacity of adaption is the key of economic performance which must have a collective approachManagement 2. 0 is promoted by the power of the Internet. Web 2. 0 technologies allow connecting people, uniting their minds and mobilising their knowledge in real time, without bringing them together. Indeed, technology fundamentally changes businesses in which technological innovation is an essential medium of success. Networking characterizes management 2. 0 since transversality becomes common for many companies. Relationships grow inside companies as well as between companies, connecting all the stakeholders. For example, Microsoft has gathered hundreds of its employees’ blogs by jobs, countries or projects. As well, Google allows its employees of research and development to carry out personal project between them. Those examples show that the capacity of sharing has to be done by individuals themselves. The culture of sharing would be easy to implement in the view of social networking development outside businesses. But inside businesses, the culture of sharing escalates when cooperation acts between organizations. This approach refers by the use of web 2. 0 tools: blogs, podcasts, webcasts, search engines, wikis, homepages. Besides, collaborative tools intensify consultation within the company. For example, the ERP tool (Enterprise Resource Planning) coordinates all the company’ structures (marketing, selling, manufacturing, accounting etc.) and links different actors, inside or outside the company (connexion with suppliers). According to D. Ollivier, technological mutations, driving management 2. 0, could have a positive impact for the company and its employees: productivity improvement, diminution of the hardness, and intensification of the capacity to innovate. According to Srinivas Koushik, CIO of the NationWide Property and Casualty Company (2006), using Web 2. 0 creates management 2. 0 in order to build and to engage teamwork. Businesses should adapt their management model to the changing world to take advantage of these tools; otherwise, adding technologies with same management practices will not work. At the same time, businesses should stimulate their communication. Indeed, modes of communication are changing faster: the audiences are more scattered, fragmented and demanding whereas messages need to be targeted, personalized and delivered through preferred communication channel. In parallel, he adds that individuals can be cowed in face-to-face communication models. Thus, managers have to use a more informal tone in their communications (e. g.: professional blog) and they should be available for feedbacks and point of views for the whole team. Adopting technology allows getting people involved and they become agents of change within their company

2. New technologies in businesses

According to Silva F. and Ben Ali A., (2010) the following tools (collaborative tools and social networking tools) develop communication and collective intelligence. In terms of communication, through social tools, ITC allow flexibility, collaboration and knowledge sharing (Benghozi, 2001). Informational tools have a key role in the updating of the organizational memory: they enable to gather together and to daily update information. These tools are, consequently, an essential connection for the coordination of a team or for a collaborative activity (Grosjean . S and Bonneville. L, 2007). Tools of collaborative work, creation of knowledge (blogs, Wiki etc.) and published communication, can encourage a collective intelligence by gather together information (Comptet I., 2006). a. Collaborative toolsAdam Smith introduced the notion of collaborative work more than two centuries ago in a famous text about the ” factory pin”. He stated that ten workers working individually do not manage to produce more than twenty pin per day and per worker. In the other hand, if they specialise each one in one manufacturing step, the pace rises to 4800 pins per worker and per day. It is no longer pins but the information, which circulate between and among employees. Exchanges have been dematerialized and they become more complexes thence the necessity to organize interactions between employees and to make them collaborate and collaborate, according to S. Leven (2002), Consultant in management and in collaborative work technologies in Main Consultants. Then, collaborative tools are platforms of office automation applications on an online collaborative and contributory purpose (e. g. GoogleDocs, Wikis etc.). These are all the files, folders, databases, calendar etc. of a group, which works on the same project. Thank to these tools, each contributor can modify the content, and accomplish tasks synchronisation whenever and wherever they are. Above all, these tools allow the gathering of the work achieved by the community, what is the ground of collaborative work. Communication tools base: Their role is primarily to circulate information between two colleagues, viewed as ” essential”, according to Serge Levan. Although those are considered as cooperative tools, employees doe not always have the feeling of working towards a common goal. The following tools are: E-mailChatInteractive whiteboard (large interactive display that connects to a computer)VideoconferencingInstant MessagingWork-sharing tools: They allow multiple people to work on the same document or an application. (e. g. Word processing ” Word” has a tool allowing to annotate a text in order to propose corrections). Contrary to communication base tools, different people who use them have the sense of moving towards a common goal. Journal du Net observes that those are relatively few used. The sharing of applications (e. g. several people work on the same plane of a product for a client)The shared editingForums and related toolsTools access to knowledge or Knowledge Management: When a employee creates a document or develops an expertise, it can save a lot of time for his colleagues by giving them access to this information. Companies who use them are often large SMEs and large accounts. Those tools are the following: LibrariesPeer to peer tools (Youtube video downloader, uTorrent etc.)PortalsMapping skillsThe electronic directoriesMailing listsFAQWiKi (BlueKiwi, MediaWiki etc.)Search engines (Google, Bing etc.)Workflow tools: According to Journal du Net, these are probably ” the most spectacular tools”. According to Serge Levan, the intervention of the software aims at coordinate the work. Workflows support, for example, the project manager in its project monitoring, and control and accelerate interactions between contributors, reviewers and the person responsible for the validation. Large corporations mainly use these tools. The following tools are: The synchronization tools (Dropbox, Evernote etc.)Tools Task ManagementThe shared calendars2. Social tools and / or social networkingThese elements related to Web 2. 0 allow a company to become a creator and user of information and knowledge with its collaborators, customers, suppliers etc., building on text, audio and video (Chatain I., 2007). Karen Altes quotes the main important social media tools for companies: Facebook: especially, it provides space for communicating; companies and customers can interact on fan pagesLinkedIn: it connects colleagues and friends and allow people to get recommended from workers and even join group for professional interestBlogs: it is a good way for companies to acquire visibility in the webosphere and then, to build strong reputation. Twitter: often described as ” the world’s largest cocktail party” in view of the conversations taking place, businesses can easily market their brandYelp: by giving user reviews and recommendations of local businesses about restaurant, shopping and nightlife, it shows more and more service oriented businesses



Goals and characteristics




Sharing in a specific field. Published tool, dynamic and easy to update, interface easy to use. Involving collaborators in order to feed regularly blog. TypePad, WordPress


Delivering key information of the organization aiming at ensuring the internal communication. Presentation of the activity, internal database, products and servicesPlanning tasks in function of the rhythm and the culture of each one.



Creating tranversality. Working in a collaborative way and sharing information in a efficient manner. Useful to emerge ideas. Information with a mode of collaborative working. MediaWiki, BlueKiwi


Making loyal viewers, customers and prospectsCreating newsletter by interviewing people. Organizing contests. http://yourmailinglistprovider. com


Meeting people which share similar interest. Enriching knowledge. Strengthening social tiesCo-activity in forum


Figure X: to illustrate the main participative toolsSource: D. Fayon, ” Web 2. 0 et au delà”, p. 20, 2008

III. Current management is not always adapted to Gen Y technology preferences

1. Olden technologies are predominant in businesses (mail, telephone)Although many businesses have already adopted new technologies with a great understanding of the value that can be produced and of the usage of these new tools, many companies are still reluctant. Indeed, technological mutations of the company are not always similar and coordinated since the evolution of technologies is faster than evolution of skills, cultures and habits according to Daniel Ollivier (2012)Indeed, technological mutations of the company are not always similar and coordinated since the evolution of technologies is faster than evolution of skills, cultures and habits. More and more managers today are facing with the abundance of information and they have to deal with. As well, coordination issues become more complex in organizations due to the increase of unities of time and place. Facing this issue, companies seek to have these technologies (ICT) allowing them processing, storing and communicating information (Reix, 2002). The setting-up of technologies and their uses are complemented by an organizational change (Reix, 1990; Marciniak and Rowe, 1997). Supposed for helping managers in their daily tasks, the dissemination and the appropriation of ICT in businesses raise an issue, such as the choice and the organization of these ones. Although Web 2. 0 tools fit in businesses more and more, many organizations struggle to take advantage of these one. According to Sebastien Tran, (april, 2010) emailing is the most used technology and the most spread technology in businesses, among tools at disposal for managers. As well, some studies and theories show this record. a) The millefeuille TheoryKalika and al. (2007) explains the superimposition of communication tools in organizations: new medias do not replace old media but they would add to it. Results show that the development of communication tools in businesses management mostly does not lead to a reorganization of the management process of communication. We observe a pilling-up effect of tools, called ” Millefeuille” since modes of communication juxtapose on others. Besides, the use of communication channels is often a source of stress and of wasted time for managers. This informational overload causes individual and collective dysfunctions, although it depends on managers. b) Studies conductedA study, carried out by Forrester Consulting for Adobe in September 2009 talk about professional expectations about methods of cooperation and main usages of tools. American and European favour electronic mail rather than new forms of communication (blogs, wikis, social networks). Indeed, Web 2. 0 collaborative tools are up against several obstacles: it make difficult professionals’ job and it is not always compatible with what they do. Security issues appear as well as a barrier of collaborative work (protection of businesses data). Besides, A more recent study conducted in September 2012 by Akio, reveals that businesses favour traditional channel to manage their customers. Indeed, emailing is the favoured channel of customers whereby telephone is considered as the unavoidable way of communication. The aim of this critical analysis is to appraise and evaluate the literature review, by breaking the subject down into its component parts. The different elements are examined as an understanding process the literature review in its whole. This analysis handles the relationships between theories and authors, underlying the convergent and divergent points. Then, the critical analysis gives a rise to a hypothesis which will carry out to of the dissertation which be processed thank to a qualitative research. Concerning the Generation Y, Josiam and al. (2009) argue that they are motivated by teamwork aimed at developing strong relationships in which social ties are important. Web 2. 0 has lead new modes of communication intended to favour the emergence of communities in which individuals can express themselves. As well, Kimberly (2009) stated that for the generation Y, the Internet is not only a simple information tool but also a mean of communication and meeting aiming at creating social ties for the generation Y. Concerning businesses, Chatain I., (2007) said that web 2. 0 tools allow company to become a creator and a user of information and knowledge with its collaborators, customers, suppliers etc. Karen Altes (2009) added that connections and ties characterize what are businesses’ relationships between workforces, customers, suppliers, and divisions. These relationships are built, maintained and supported by social media since the company’s brand is established through the interactions within the organization. Sam Kelly (2009) argued that using social media such as Facebook, LinkedIn and blogging, in organizations enable people to get connected. We can affirm that the Generation Y and Businesses use web 2. 0 technologies in order to communicate, interact and get connected, reinforcing social ties. At the same time, new technologies become the ” binder” in the organization of work, which changes and transforms the management of information (delays are reduced, repetitive tasks are automated) (Akoka. J and Comyn-Wattiau. I, 2006). The arrival of the Internet has led a convergence of technologies (image, sound, telephone) and has diversified communication, which telecommunication networking becomes the broadcasting medium (Breton Ph., 2004). Indeed, organizations have begun to develop the use of new communication tools such as electronic mail and Visio conference in the 90’s (Wasson C., 2004). The rise of the number and the quality of information whereby each individual of a group has access, has improved the interpersonal collaboration thank to a better information sharing (Comtet I. 2006). Thus, Silva F. and Ben Ali A. (2010) say that the emergence of collaborative, virtual and ubiquity work appears more and more in work organization: new technologies generate new forms to interact such as the virtualization of interpersonal relationships, which allows ubique and collaborative work. Charpentier P. (2007) talks about of NFWO, meaning ” new form of work organization”. Indeed, the use of collaborative technologies conduct to a management 2. 0, in order to deal with management issues, thank to the collective intelligence of communities. This management develops a collaborative work promoted by efficient and user-friendly tools, since ICT allow flexibility, collaboration and knowledge sharing (Benghozi, 2001). According to Daniel Ollivier (2011), management 2. 0 meets both, businesses’ and generation Y’ expectations, concerning the working tools (Web 2. 0 tools), the way of working (collaboration), the value of the work (the meaning of the project), the relationships between managers and employees (feedbacks and win-win contract). Thus, we can affirm that changes occurring in the work organization, (New form of Work Organization) have led a management 2. 0, which match businesses and generation Y expectations by integrating the use of new technologies (web 2. 0 tools). However, previous affirmations are reconsidered for some reasons. Indeed, current studies show that new technologies, such as web 2. 0 tools, are not being used as much in businesses. Forrester Consulting’s study, for Adobe in September 2009, observes that American and European favour electronic mail rather than new forms of communication (blogs, wikis, social networks). Indeed, Web 2. 0 collaborative tools make difficult professionals’ job since they are not always compatible with what employees do. As well, security issues appear as a barrier of collaborative work (protection of businesses data). Moreover, businesses favour traditional channel such as emailing and telephone, considered as the unavoidable way of communication (Akio’s study, September 2012). Indeed, Sebastian Tran (April 2010) argues that emailing is the most used technology and the most spread technology in businesses among tools at disposal for managers. This observation is supported by the Millefeuille theory (Kalika and al. (2007) which explains that it exists a superimposition communication tools in organizations. Indeed, new medias do not replace old media but they would add to it, in which some tools (such as e-mailing) are predominant comparing with others (web 2. 0 tools). This development of communication tools in businesses management mostly does not lead a reorganization of the management process of communication in which dysfunctions appear and stop some managers to take advantage of these new technologies. Thus, although authors show the benefits of web 2. 0 tools both for employer (manager) and employee (Generation Y), technologies’ use is not equal in many businesses, which favour traditional tools.