Significance of discoveries in genetics and dna biology essay

Emma BarnesBIO1020 S05Santosha OliverSignificance of Discoveries in Genetics and DNALong before factual evidence had shown that DNA materials were accountable for genetic inheritance; it was assumed that proteins had controlled the genetics of living things. since there were so many different expressed traits. Biologist believed that since DNA is a very simple molecule in its structure, it was not possible to be responsible for that many differences in life. Logically speaking, the conclusion was that other numerous proteins had to control genetics. Understanding the similarity of offspring’s to the parents in structure and physiological features have stumped several biologists. The beginning indication leading to the credentials of DNA as genetic materials originated from studies in bacteria. Today, this indication represents models in defining functions of genes by the introduction of new DNA in cells. Individual appearances, heights, color of hair or skin, and eyes are determined by genes. Nevertheless, genes does not act alone, but functions as reasonable instructional books of constructing useful molecules such as ribonucleic acid (RNA) and proteins, which make chemical reactions in the body. Genetics is a division of biology dealing with ideologies of inheritance and practices.” Heredity is the transmission of traits from one generation to the next. Genetics, the scientific study of heredity, began in the 1860s, when an Augustinian monk named Gregor Mendel deduced its fundamental principles by breeding garden peas”. While studying the design of inheritance in pea plants of dissimilar characters, Mendel suggested principles of inheritance, which today is denoted as ‘ Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance’. Mendel suggested genes regulate characters found in pairs known as alleles. He witnessed expressions of characters in the offspring’s followed a sure form in the difference of the first generation, second, and so on. He also observed that some characters were dominant over others. It was clearly understood that genes are what carries traits from one generation to the other and they consisted of deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA. Nevertheless, it was not until the mid- 20th century, that researchers gained understanding of this fact. In 1952, Chase led a series of experimentations that lastly demonstrated that it was DNA and not proteins that controlled inheritance of traits. The experiment used DNA with radioactively labeled phosphorus and proteins with radioactively labeled sulfur. The final proof that DNA, not protein, was the genetic material was provided by the offspring of the phosphorus-labeled bacteriophages. They had radioactive DNA, passed down from their parents, but no radioactive protein. These experiments convinced the scientific community that DNA alone was the material of heredity, and inspired Watson and Crick to begin their efforts to discover its structure. According to Medline Plus (2013) website, ” Human beings have cells with 46 chromosomes — 2 sex chromosomes and 22 pairs of non-sex (autosomal) chromosomes: males are ” 46, XY” and females are ” 46, XX” which are made up of strands of genetic information called DNA”. Genes are segments of DNA that convey info essential to creating protein. They hold all of our genetic data, and offer the ” genetic code” that permits our bodies to develop, grow, and function. They are made up of DNA providing instructions to make proteins and bundled in structures called chromosomes. Each individual has two copies of each gene; one inherited from each parent. Alleles are forms of the same gene with small differences in their sequence of DNA bases. These small differences contribute to each person’s unique physical features. The particular designs of nucleotides signify certain genes, responsible for different genetic physical characteristics. Protein synthesis is merely the ” creating of proteins.” Even though the word is not hard to comprehend, the numerous steps cells in plants or animals go through are not. To make one protein, the human body must find help from the messenger RNA; transmit DNA, RNA, amino acids, ribosomes, and several enzymes. The basic steps of protein synthesis are: transferal (a device is connected to an amino acid then energized with enough power to endure its voyage, transcription (RNA is created in the nucleus, initiating the making of protein), and translation (release of mRNA by the ribosome and amino acid creating a protein) which has three distinct stages: initiation, elongation, and termination. During the initiation stage the RNA polymerase enzyme insets the DNA double helix. In the elongation stage the RNA polymerase enzyme builds a strand of mRNA from the template DNA strand. The last stage (termination) is mRNA synthesis is complete. Both RNAp and mRNA are freed into solution and the double helix is formed (Carrera, 2007). DNA through the process of protein synthesis is responsible for the ultimate expression of the characteristics in the organism. Protein synthesis is the main mechanism in body growth and changes. It results in the production of amino acid chains which are for proteins (important component in body). DNA and all types of ribonucleic acid or RNA are involved in the process. Enzymes in the cell’s nucleus begin the process of protein synthesis by unwinding the needed section of DNA, so that RNA can be made.  Since we cannot exist without enzymes, this mechanism is needed for our existence. When errors disrupts cellular finesses, it causes ” disease phenotypes and shapes gene and genome evolution”. Occasionally an error will originate in the genetic material of a new cell resulting in the inability of identifying the precise order of amino acids to form its protein; thus said to have a mutation (Jebb, 2007). Mutations can cause genes to encode a protein that works falsely or not at all. ” During protein synthesis, DNA is copied into RNA and then translated to produce proteins; altering nucleotide sequences most often results in nonfunctioning proteins” (About. com, 2013). Individuals need protein in the diet to help bodies mend cells and create new ones. Protein is also significant for growing and improvement during infancy, teenage years, and perinatal periods. Proteins are also essential for the body structure including the formation of bones.  Other structural proteins include collagen, cartilage, elastin and keratin that form the skin. Proteins may also be converted to sugar or fat to be used for fuel. Sufficient protein helps maintain a good energy level, stabilizes blood sugar, assists adrenal and thyroid activity, helps control weight and assists bowel function. Enzymes are proteins and therefore their purpose is detailed to their assembly. Enzymes rest on the accurate fundamental position and angle at the active site of the protein and the proper site of the reactants, before the reaction can proceed. This symmetrical relation amid the enzyme and the substrate refer to the ” lock-and-key model” because its action equals the action of a lock into which is fitted the key if they do not match, the action does not work. All enzymes are proteins and simplify all chemical reaction in the body.  They act as a facilitator, dropping the activation energy of a reaction, so vividly raising the   level of the reaction. On the other hand proteins can act as conveyance and basic essentials within the cell, rather than facilitators. Enzymes are the workhorses of the body. When you eat, enzymes break down the food into tiny particles which can be converted into energy in the body. The process starts in the mouth, where an enzyme called amylase attacks all incoming food particles. Like a well-drilled team of engineers, different enzymes continue to break down the food all the way to the stomach and intestines. The breakdown of food is an essential part of the conversion of food into energy. Undigested food is unable to pass on the energy stored within it. The enzymes involved in the digestion process carry out the final cutting of the food particles so that they can be easily converted into the essential energy needed by all parts of our body. Without enzymes you would die from starvation, even sitting in the middle of a restaurant waving your gold card. Proteases refer to a group of enzymes whose catalytic function is to breakdown proteins. They are also called protolithic enzymes. Protolithic enzymes are very important in digestion as they breakdown the peptide bonds in the protein foods to liberate the amino acids needed by the body. Furthermore, protolithic enzymes have been used numerous forms of treatment. Their use in medicine is notable based on several clinical studies indicating their benefits in oncology, inflammatory conditions, blood rheology control, and immune regulation. ReferencesAbout. com. (2013). Gene Mutation. Retrieved from http://www. biology. about. com/od/basicgenetics/ss/gene-mutation. htmCarrera, D. (2007). RNA Interference. Retrieved from http://www. princeton. edu/chemistry/macmillan/group-meetings/DEC_RNAi. pdfEnzyme Essentials. (2013). Protease: The Importance of Protein. Retrieved from http://www. enzymeessentials. com/HTML/protease. html