Immigration involves the movement of people into a country due to various reasons such as political wars, economic reasons, education reasons, or religious differences from their mother countries, while emigration involves the movement of people out of the country. Immigration in European Union countries and United State grew rapidly although most of the immigration was in form of capital and trade. International migration illustrates the geographic proximity and ties of colony history. Movements beyond these traditional conducts continued to be appreciably enforced and confirmed by political, economical, social barriers and border control. Migration of people, capital, or trade-in European Union countries and American states found ways of evading the barriers of state boundaries. Immigrants in United State and Europe mostly included economical migrants, asylum seekers, and permanent settlers (Edgar, Doherty & Meert 11).
In 1994 the number of migrants in Europe rose to 1.3 million but they introduced policies to monitor this mass immigration. Immigration in Europe was more restricted than in American states, Europe migrants were estimated to be around twenty million of which many were illegal or unauthorized migrants. The rising levels and diversity of capital transfers, trading, and migration of people reflect an accelerated process of what was called time spacer compression. Europeans Union countries imposed strict policies of immigration to their countries in the early nineties, but they changed their attitude and behavior towards migrants since 1945. Although there were important variations between the European countries for the past 1950s and 1960s, the European Union’s had an open door policy guiding third countries migrants (Geddes 16).
Immigration in Europe for work and residence was strongly monitored and controlled with individual member states seemingly vying to surpass one another in imposing the tightest restrictions. Immigrants in Europe were categorized and treated according to the way they were received during entry. For example, the skilled workers who were seeking entry as refugees were received differently from those entering legally. Immigrants in European Unions were seen as people who contributed to vulnerability and decline in the social-economical status of the countries. In the United Kingdom, strict policies were enacted due to economic changes which were contributed by immigration. The United Kingdom revised its policies in a fair way to attract immigration of labor, capital, and trade to improve the economy. They endorsed strict policies for immigrants especially refugees, during the post-war time they were discriminative depending on ethnic and racial groups. The taut power to control and monitor immigrants contributed to the improvement of race relations (Geddes 25).
Europe’s assimilation into European Union’s federation was part of natural evolution in German states. Legal and political limits were created in European Unions to decrease the number of asylum-seekers migrants. This reduced disaster brought by asylum such as time-space congestion. The creation of alliances in German states developed compensation schemes for immigrants and asylum seekers. The German government was much interested and concerned with mostly asylum and in response, they introduced free movement rights to new members from other states. The German government also nominated central and eastern parts to monitor and control immigration. Integration in European Union was mostly practiced by German states. In 1989 all legal migrants and European citizens were issued with a new identity card (Kesselman & Krieger 451).
Europe was mainly interested in labor, social, capital, trade migration because it was seen as a source of wealth generation. Europe was among the rich states in the world, Most immigrants were not allowed to assess public opportunities such as free health care services. Immigration flow In European countries beats the linearity of traditional migration patterns where there was one-way passage. Currently, migration in European Union countries is transnational, groups of people or individuals migrate within the European nations. (Kesselman & Krieger 525).
In contrast to European countries, American states received migrants in one heart and treated them well. They encouraged the immigration of legal skilled and professional workers who sought jobs. Those seeking refugees were welcomed and provided with funds for their needs. Recently Immigration of foreign persons in the United State has attracted the attention of a large portion of communication. During the seventeen century after the war in Europe, most people migrated to United State as asylum seekers. American State did not restrict Europeans from immigration and those who came earlier welcomed those who came later. Most American states created a liberal policy that was fair to both citizens and migrants. The policy sympathized with foreigners, especially refugees they were encouraged to settle in rich soils. Americans who owned a large part of the soil and natural resources were requested to share with a foreigner who was desperate. Foreigners were educated, modernized and their social and political characters were modified. Most American states were providing funds to legal migrants and there were few policies guiding immigration. Immigration in the American state contributed to the growth of population and improvement of social culture. With time there was an increase of illegal immigrants in American states which contributed to the creation of several policies on immigration. Immigration policy in United State was debated for a decade on the legal immigration control and illegal migrants but only legal immigration policy was approved and liberated. Due to some disagreement during debate resulted in the immigration of more illegal people which contributed to an increase in social and economic costs. The ministry of immigration and professional scholars declared that the number of illegal migrants rose in 1965. They also stated that the public complained about rising numbers of illegal migrants, they concluded that a high number of illegal migrants contributed to the exhaustion of social welfare programs and were displacing citizen workers (Chickening 67).
In the 1960s, the united state debated mostly on legal migrants but earlier 1970s due to an increased alarm from the public response on illegal immigrants, an illegal immigration policy was imposed. The policy for illegal immigrants is part of the Immigration Reform’s Control Act. The existing laws regarding immigration were enforced together with the new policy of illegal immigration. Immigration policy ensured that fairness is considered and non-discrimination shaped national policies discussing any illegal immigrant. Several policies were enacted to reduce illegal immigration which included stronger control of the borders, occupational safety standards, and employer sanctions. Illegal immigration policy recommended the liberalization of amnesty programs. Although the United States of America recommended the illegal policy, they rejected the mass deport of the illegal migrants because of the possibility to cause violation of civil rights. Illegal immigrants such as having fake visas and green cards, found in the United States are charged with violating the Illegal Policy Act. (Edgar, Doherty & Meert 15).
Legal immigrants in the United States of America were taken care of well and were provided with benefits especially financially. In 1996 a new policy was endorsed for American states that restricted the provision of benefits to new legal migrants. Most of the states acted on this policy which was part of the Illegal Immigration Reform and Response Act. The policy banned the use of national funds to offer benefits to new migrants during the first five years of citizenship. States such as Pennsylvania have a strict law on the provision of state benefits. California, Texas, and New York provided food to children, the disabled, and the old who are legally in their states. The commission that was responsible for policy and welfare reforms argued that it was very unfair to deny legal benefits to legal migrants since they were paying taxes. Republican representatives in the United States of America formed part of the welfare reform legislation that took care of legal immigrants. Welfare reforms and legislation in the United States were proposed to reduce the government from spending much on immigrants (Geddes 49).
Immigration policy was imposed in both the European Union and the United States of America. Strict laws and policies were imposed to control and monitor illegal migration in Europe and United States. Skilled and professional workers with work permits were greatly encouraged in both places because they contribute to the economy of states. Much attention was put to mass immigration since they contribute to the economic crisis and illegal immigration was seen to increase the living cost. Immigration policies in United Nations were strict as compared to immigration policies in the United States. Immigration in European Unions was seen as a predictor of social and economical vulnerability. Immigration of foreigners in the United States of America was given attention liberal policies and welfare reforms legislation were imposed to help the needy. Welfare reforms legislation was designed to reduce national misuse of funds and provide a deterrent for legal migrants (Chickening 70).
Chickening, Jesse. Immigration into United State. USA: Hewes & Wat Sou’s Publication, (2005): 67-70.
Edgar, Bill, Doherty, Joe & Meert, Henk. Immigration and homeless in Europe. New York University of Bristol Press, (2004): 11-15.
Geddes, Andrew. Politics of migration and immigration in Europe. London: Sage Publication Limited, (2005): 16-50.
Kesselman, Mark & Krieger, Joel. European politics in transition. USA: Houghton Mifflin Company, (2009): 451-525.