Health Law and Professional Ethics

Welch H. G. (2010). Screening Mammography — A Long Run for a Short Slide? The New England Journal of Medicine, 363. Web.

Welch H. G., Professor of Medicine and Community and Family Medicine, dedicated the article to the problem to the problem of screening mammography as a main method of detecting breast cancer. The article is written for general audience. The author emphasizes the importance of mammography, but admits that it is one of the most contentious issues in the sphere of medicine (Welch H. G., 2010, p. 1276). Welch H. G. underline that the problem of mammography is an important issue taking into account professional ethics. As well as the author cited below, Welch H. G. agrees that there is certain risk in screening mammography. Still, the author highlights that “physicians should continue to persuade women to undergo screening and that the modest benefit is worth the associated harms” (Welch H. G., 2010, p. 1278), because there is no another methods which could be beneficial as the one under consideration.

Law J., Faulkner K., & Young K. C. (2007). Risk Factors for Induction of Breast Cancer by X-Rays and Their Implications for Breast Screening. The British Journal of Radiology, 80. Web.

The authors of the article, Law J., Faulkner K., and Young K. C., are prominent scientists in the field of radiology and oncology. In the article they investigate the problem of X-rays as the factor which may lead to breast cancer. Comparing with the authors cited above, the main goal of this article is definition of the possible risk of X-rays while breast screening. The article is dedicated to specialists in the field of mammography and oncology. The authors highlight the importance of the investigation in the aspect of medical ethics and health law. In the course of investigation the authors come to a conclusion that the risk factor of X-rays lies not only in the essence of the screening, but also in the age of patients. “At younger ages, there is little if any risk of detriment exceeding benefit down to age 40 years” (Law, Faulkner, Young, 2007, p. 266). Still, they point out that women with family histories of breast cancer demand special attention (Law, Faulkner, Young, 2007, p. 266).

Truog, M.D, & Robert D. (2009). Screening Mammography and the “R” Word. The New England Journal of Medicine. Web.

Authors of the article, Truog, M.D., Professor of Medical Ethics and Anesthesiology (Pediatrics) at. Harvard Medical School, and Robert D., a national correspondent, investigate the recent changes in mammography guidelines and their possible results. In contrast to the articles cited above, the authors highlight the negative effect of changes from the health law and medical ethics point of view. The article is dedicated to general audience. The authors of the article point out that mammography screening is highly important and effective for women in 40s (Truog, Robert, 2009). The authors prove that “screening mammography does offer an identifiable survival benefit to women in this age group” (Truog, Robert, 2009). Truog and Robert (2009) criticize the shifting of mammography guidelines as a part of recent heath care reform:

Efforts to disguise the guidelines under the cloak of false reassurances that mammographic screening for women in their 40s “does not work” only fuels suspicions that these experts are being evasive, or even misleading.

Kalager M., Zelen M., Langmark F, & Adami H. (2010). Effect of Screening Mammography on Breast-Cancer Mortality in Norway. The New England Journal of Medicine, 363. Web.

Kalager M., Zelen M., Langmark F, and Adami H., prominent scientists in the field of oncology, dedicated their article to the problem to the results of mammography screening. The article is written for specialists in the field of oncology. The authors admit that numerous clinical trials prove the risk of mammography screening. Unlike the article written by Welch H. G., the authors of the present article try to investigate the risk of the mammography. Analyzing statistical data, the scientists come to a conclusion that introduction of other screening programs are as effective as mammography screening. Still, the authors agree that statistical data is not enough for accurate investigation. “We conclude that our results support the evidence that screening mammography reduces the rate of death from breast cancer” (Kalager M., Zelen M., Langmark F, Adami H., 2010, p. 1210). The scientists conclude that mammography screening can be introduced to the health care system as safe method of testing as well as other programs, because their efficiency is proved experimentally.

Mayor S. (2010). Preoperative MRI fails to reduce risk of incomplete tumour excision in small breast cancers. British Medical Journal, 340. Web.

Mayor S., a specialist in the field of medicine, dedicated the article to the problem of MRI effectiveness. The article is written for general audience. Unlike the authors cited above Mayor admits that the MRI usage contradicts professional ethics and health law. The author Corroborate her point of view by statistical data analysis. The author admits MRI results cannot be regarded as an unstained factor. Mayor S. (2010) admits the amount of women who required a repeated operation rose dramatically (p. 207).

The author admits that usage of MRI is questionable from the point of view of professional ethics and health law because its results are less effective than methods. Mayor S. (2010) adds that “an economic analysis showed that the addition of MRI would cost more but offered few or no benefits in terms of clinical outcomes or quality of life” (p. 207). Still, she highlights that the MRI is a dispute question and many experts are sure in its positive effect: “MRI is likely to minimize the incidence of inappropriate mastectomy” (Mayor, 2010, p. 207).

Reference List

Kalager M., Zelen M., Langmark F, & Adami H. (2010). Effect of Screening Mammography on Breast-Cancer Mortality in Norway. The New England Journal of Medicine, 363. Web.

Law J., Faulkner K., & Young K. C. (2007). Risk Factors for Induction of Breast Cancer by X-Rays and Their Implications for Breast Screening. The British Journal of Radiology, 80. Web.

Mayor S. (2010). Preoperative MRI fails to reduce risk of incomplete tumour excision in small breast cancers. British Medical Journal, 340. Web.

Truog, M.D, & Robert D. (2009). Screening Mammography and the “R” Word. The New England Journal of Medicine. Web.

Welch H. G. (2010). Screening Mammography — A Long Run for a Short Slide? The New England Journal of Medicine, 363. Web.