Example of false memories literature review

The aim of this paper is to critically assess the research studies, formulate the hypothesis as well as the research methodology concerning the false memories.
Benjamin, A. S. (2001) in the article ‘ On the dual effects of repetition on false recognition’ presented findings of the impact of study list repetition on false recognition using two factor including aging and time pressure. The experiment reveals dual bases for the decision regarding recognition of words including semantic similarity and decision criteria. Both were affected due to time constraints and old age of participants.
The article named “ How are false memory distinguishable from true memory in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm?” by Jerwen Jue and Shaney Flores compares the two memory. It has been done in the context of Deese-Roediger-McDermott model using numerous numbers of dependent as well as independent measures. Furthermore, it deeply examines the difference between the contextual facts about the memories (Jou & Flores 2013). The article explores that the false memories are as similar as the true memories and, therefore, it becomes very hard to distinguish them. For this purpose, the article has reviewed various sources that have compared the subject of matter. The article examines various studies that have conducted the relationship between the two types of recall. The article explores that the memories are intermingled and have common characteristics to compare with each other. The article gives the example that some false memories can be experienced faster seeming realer than some true memories despite overall memories feeling more real. The article also discusses that the difference between true and false memories in consideration of objective as well as subjective dealings is not of the kind but is relative degree. The false memory can be identified and distinguished from the true memory as the weaker form of true memory (Jou & Flores 2013). Similarly, the study by Roediger and McDermott, K. B. (1995) “ Creating false memories: remembering words not presented in lists” using list learning paradigm indicated many instances of false memory and false recall which suggest high level of power of illusion.
In a similar manner, the article named “ The Role of Emotion Elaboration in the Creation of False Memories” examines the role played by emotions in creating the false memories. The article primarily focuses on the creation of false memory by using an eyewitness suggestibility model to investigate the role of the emotional amplification in making the connection with specific events. The article reveals that there is the high chance of the creation of false belief and false memories if there are emotional consequences of specific events. The author argues in the article that the emotional elaboration increases the possibility of creating higher false memories as compared to any other sort of elaboration. The article has discussed various experiments with the help of different methodologies to prove the connection of emotion in generating false memories. Different experiments are used as evidence to prove the claim the emotional elaboration results in creating higher false memories. Furthermore, the authors argue that the subject of memory is very subtle because it is always confusing to know the accuracy of memory. It leads to the topic of false memory (Drivdahl, Zaragoza & Learned 2009).
One more article that touches the issue of false memory is “ Recent Advances in False Memory Research” by Cara and Elizabeth. The article discusses that the false memory is an error of memory that make an individual remembered entire event that did not occur in any way. The authors in this article argue that the false memory can result in various consequences, and its occurrence is sometimes because of one’s emotional involvement with the specific event. The duration of false memory can be longer, and it can stay for a short period (Laney & Loftus 2013). The article discusses the recent discoveries about the development of false memories by arguing that the false memories are not only the exploration of existing memories but are concealed memories. The recent findings in the field of psychology regarding the false memories have been discussed early studies about false memories.
In addition, the article named “ Enhancement of False Memory for Negative Material in Dysphoria” discusses the connection of the accuracy of memory to dysphoria. In order to know the connection of false memory with the depression or dysphoria, the authors examine various studies that have been conducted to explore the connection. The article has also used the Deese-Roediger-McDermott model to collect evidence for the participation of false memory in making individuals dysphoric (Stea, Lee & Sears 2013). The article reveals that study conducted by selecting the words that are semantically negative as well as neutral to test the memory of various mentally unstable individuals. Furthermore, the authors have given various directions at the end of the paper for the sake of future research in the field of false memory and mental diseases.


• The issue of false memory is very subtle in the sense of distinguishing from true memories because the false memories are not kinds of true memories but are relatively different to a certain degree from the true memories.

• The creation of false memory seems to be because of the emotional elaboration of individual to suggested or specific events.

• False memories play its part in the disease of cognitive disease including depression and dysphoria.
• False memory is errors of memory that make an individual remember the entire event that did not occur in any way.

Research Methodology

The research methodology used in the paper is qualitative or descriptive. The qualitative research methodology helps in investigating about the past studies because the literature reviews of four articles published in various journals used in the paper have been examined through this approach. The articles used in the paper are taken from different sources and are very different in their discussion of false memory. Four various article was discussing different aspects of false memory and showing the role false memory play is taken to know its influence of false memory in the lives of individuals. In other words, the selection of four different articles discussing various aspects of false memory is the part of a methodology to reveal the difference between false and true memory as well to investigate the false memory fully.
Furthermore, the selection of four different articles from different sources with different issues of false memory is also the part of the methodology in this sense that these four articles provide insight to develop an effective and persuasive hypothesis. The formation of the hypothesis greatly rests on the literature reviews of the articles because these literature reviews provide the required information for the formation of the hypothesis. The formation of hypothesis on the behalf of the literature review is also part of the methodology because the hypothesis will prove when it is examined in the context of these articles.
The literature reviews of the past studies give the readers brief information about false memory. The different past studies provide opportunity for the readers to compare various roles of false memory besides giving information about the concept of false memory. In other words, the literature review provides different lenses to the readers to look into the issue of false memory, giving the reader deep insight into the issue.

List of References

Benjamin, A. S. (2001) ‘ On the dual effects of repetition on false recognition’, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, vol. 27, pp. 941–7.
Drivdahl, S. B., Zaragoza, M. S. & Learned, D. M. (2009), ‘The Role of Emotional Elaboration in the Creation of False Memories.’, Applied Cognitive Psychology, vol 23, no. 1, pp. 13-35.
Jou, J. & Flores, S. (2013), ‘How are False Memories Distinguishable from True Memories in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott Paradigm?’, Psychological Research, vol 77, no. 6, pp. 671-686.
Laney, C. & Loftus, E. F. 2013, ‘Recent Advances in False Memory Research’, South African Journal of Psychology, vol 43, no. 2, pp. 137-146.
Roediger, H. L., III and McDermott, K. B. (1995) Creating false memories: remembering words not presented in lists, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, vol. 21, pp. 803–14
Stea, J. N., Lee, S. M. & Sears, C. R. 2013, Enhancement of false memory for negative material in dysphoria: Mood congruency or response bias? Cognitive Therapy & Research, vol 37, no. 7, pp. 1189-1200.