This paper will summarize the physical changes that occur in children and the factors. The paper will also describe the cognitive changes that occur in childhood, such as problem solving and judgment and specific examples will be given. The major milestones in social development that take place in childhood will be discussed as well; this includes peer relationships, male/female differences, and family influences. Emotional development in childhood will be talked about as well. This will include information on self-understanding/self-concept, emotional intelligence and regulation. Physical Changes That Occur In Children and Factors
In early childhood the growth of the body starts to slow down, usually children start to gain about five pounds in a year and they grow around three inches taller in the year. Usually their balance and body posture improve, most of the time boys weigh more than girls do because they are made more masculine. The first change that children usually go through from infancy to early childhood is skeletal change “ Between ages 2 and 6, approximately 45 new epiphyses, or growth centers in which cartilage hardens into bone, emerge in various parts of the skeleton. X-rays of these growth centers enable doctors to estimate children’s skeletal age, or progress toward physical maturity” (Berk, 2010). By the age of three years old to five years of age children have developed a vocabulary of three-hundred to one thousand words. Usually by the end of preschool year children start to lose their baby teeth, but it all depends on their genetics.
An example would be if a girl was ahead of a boy in growth, then the girl would lose their teeth first. Genes influence the children’s growth by controlling the production of hormones. The growth hormone (GH) is vital for the development of the body tissues except for the genitals and the nervous system. By age five children usually have good control over a pencil, crayons and scissors. Motor accomplishments like skipping and balancing on one foot. Around five to eight years of age physical growth starts to slow down, body proportions and motor skills become more honed. Factors that influence these changes are the environment that they are around, genetics (parent’s genes). Cognitive Change in Childhood
Childhood is not just memorable for amazing growth but also for mental development (cognitive). Cognitive abilities include: problem solving, memory, reasoning, and thinking continues all through childhood. At age zero to one year of age the example of cognition would be to look directly at an adult in the face, find hidden object, and initiate familiar gestures. Usually around the age of one to two years the child indicates the wants and needs, point to body parts, follow simple direction. “ At age two year to three years the child should be able to match picture to picture, match color and simple shapes, give age” (Melroy, 2004).
At three to four year of age they can give full name, role count to three, recite rhyming. Four to five years of age should be able to identify opposites, name color, role count to ten, complete five piece puzzles. Age five to six should be able to role count to one hundred, name numbers, name shapes, give phone number, and identify some letter sounds. If would be impossible talking about cognitive changes and not talk about the work of psychologist Jean Piaget. Jean Piaget theory, which is about using imagination and play acting, I have found out from my daughter from an early age she would play act and early on she would distinguish stuff like the girl doll is (mommy), boy doll is (daddy) allowing them to act things out and use their imagination you are letting the kids to use their cognitive skills and when they use them their skills improve it is basically the more you use this skill the children skills will improve. Major Milestones in Social Development