Common household chemicals found in cells

Most of the chemical reactions taking place in the body involve molecules (solutes) that are dissolved in water (solvent). Chemical reactions require an aqueous medium to take place, thus water’s role is verified. A cell that lacks sufficient water tends to get shrink and dehydrated. Cells getting dehydrated leads to total dehydration of the human body which is fatal. Thus, water, like oxygen, is a very important constituent of the cell.
Now, we talk about inorganic compounds of a cell that are also found in a common household. Carbohydrates are other important carbon-based chemicals/molecules that give energy to the cell. Since most carbohydrates are sweet, these are commonly known as sugars. These are called monosaccharides, Disaccharides, and Polysaccharides. Monosaccharides comprise glucose and since glucose is the most abundant monosaccharide in blood, it is also referred to as blood sugar. The breakdown of simple sugars, like glucose, “ provides both a source of cellular energy and the starting material for the synthesis of other cell constituents” (Cooper, 2000). Two monosaccharides combine to form a disaccharide. For example, glucose combines with fructose to form sucrose, and when glucose combines with galactose, then lactose is formed which is milk sugar. Many monosaccharides combine to form polysaccharides. Here, chains of glucose molecules combine to form glycogen and starch, found in animal and plant cells respectively.
Lipids or, in other words, fats are also found in cells. These lipids are divided into categories namely fatty acids, triglycerides, phospholipids, and steroids. Lipids are not only a main component of cell membranes but also act as energy and neutral fat storage. These also act as a protective layer around the cell to prevent abnormal activities like extra water coming in and out. Lipids also play a significant role in sending signals in and out of the cell such as sending signals from the receptors present at the surface of the cell onto the target acceptors within the cell.
Proteins are composed of elements like carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sulfur. Twenty various amino acids link together and form proteins. Proteins are an important structural component of cells and carry out functions necessary for the individuality of cells and other body organs. Protein hormones tend to transfer information within cells. Proteins also serve as antibodies that provide protection against infections.
Nucleic acids found in the cell are responsible for the storage and transmission of genetic information and for using that information to initiate protein synthesis. Two main types that are more significant in a human cell are DNA and RNA. They function to provide the necessary materials needed for cell repair and cell metabolism (Jeanty, 2010).