Biology db 5

BIOLOGY DB 5 Plant anatomy can be described as the study of the structure of plants as organisms, which entails analyses of cells, tissues and organs. Plant physiology can be described as the study of the function of cells, tissues and organs of the plants. Organs of a plant such as stem, roots and leaves are made up of the same type of tissue. The function of a standard root is anchorage, nutrient & water absorption from the soil, storage and transportation of nutrient and water. The plant used for this project is a yam, it is a modification of the normal root since it has a ground tissue (cortex) that provides support and stores starch and sugar. Support is a function that is mainly conducted by the stem, and for this reason a yam is modification of a normal plant.
Botanically yams are in the family of monocotyledonous referred to as Dioscoreaceae and genus Dioscorea. The main reason as to why they are grown is because of their tuber or storage organs. The root cortex of a yam as compared to that of a corn is huge, which enables it to store sugar, starch and other substances. Casparian strip, which is water-impermeable strip of waxy material situated in the endodermis does not control uptake of minerals into the xylem as compared to other plants such as corn plants. This is because most of the minerals are stored and retained in the root, which functions as a stem. Yam as a plant can be said to support leaves because a stem is absent, the anatomy of yam as a plant can be said to be a modification of other standard plant.
Animals and animal products are beneficial to human beings for different purposes other than for food. Animal products are highly beneficial in production of materials for clothes. Pigs are essential in production of valuable products such as suede for manufacture of clothes and production of shoes. Cattle produce leather which is sourced from the hides in the animal skin. The leather is used in the manufacture of clothes, shoes, purses, wallets and car upholstery. Feathers from poultry especially from geese and ducks are important in stuffing down clothes such as pillows and jackets. Sheep is a great source of wool that is used in processing yarn for knitting socks, shirts and other different cloths. Rabbits are a source of far used in knitting socks, yarn and other types of clothing.
The most important benefit of animals is medicinal applications. Animal products have been tested methodically as a source of drugs especially in modern medicine. For instance, a snake venom is used as an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor. This enzyme is important in control of blood pressure and therefore important in application of high blood pressure in modern medicine. Also, Fish are a high source of biochemical medicine that is used in the manufacture of antiviral and anticancer drugs. A new pharmaceutical discovery involving dogfish sharks is used in production of drugs for killing bacteria, fungi and parasites.
Animals are more adapted to different circumstances than plants as plants have no ability of choosing their shape, pattern or color. Animals have the ability to camouflage to blend to their surroundings by changing their color such as a chameleon. Animas have the ability to adapting to leant behavior while plants cannot. Such animals include birds, dogs, cats or deers. Lastly, animals have the ability of locomotion while plants cannot.
Alves Romulo RN & Rosa IL, (2005). “ Why study the use of animal product in traditional medicines?” J Ethnobiol Ethnomed, , 1-5.