HRM and Personnel Management
Personnel management refers to a set of administrative activities that are concerned with the workforce including; staffing, making payrolls, and contractual duties among other activities. In this case, personnel management is considered to include those activities, which are concerned with workforce management and not resource management.
The nature of personnel management is found to be more administrative, and the manager in charge of this task is responsible for making sure that the needs of the workforce are met.
Also, the personnel manager serves as an intermediary between the workers and the senior managers. Therefore, it is always felt that personnel management does not fit into the goals that are set by the management (Difference between personnel management & HRM 2013).
Nevertheless, with the coming up of organizations that are resource-centric, it has turned out to be quite vital to value people and also to take necessary measures to secure the management goals. This has contributed to the realization of a modern human resources management function.
This function focuses on making sure that the management objectives are met while ensuring that there is also taking care of the resource needs (Difference between personnel management & HRM 2013). Here, there is a difference between human resources management and personnel management basing, not just on the wider scope of HRM but, on how the definition of its mission is made as well.
HRM does not just perform the administrative tasks that are carried out by personnel management; it as well takes in a wide vision of the way management would wish the resources would help in the realization of the purpose of the organization (Difference between personnel management & HRM 2013).
Line Manager’s Role in Apple
A line manager needs to have the skills and abilities to cope with a wide range of human behavior. This manager needs to have the capability to motivate initiative, facilitate conflict resolution and to offer directions in a clear way. At the Apple Company, the line managers serve as the first option from which the employees can get answers to questions concerning the company’s goals.
They also help in interpreting the announcements that are made by the top management to the employees. At the Apple Company, the line managers take matching orders from the meetings that are held every week by the top management (Baker, 2011).
An organizational environment that impacts Apple’s HRM function
Many changes are happening within the present day society. These changes have, consequently, altered the environment in which the business organizations operate. This has brought about challenges, which call for looking for immediate solutions to ensure the HRM function is successful and for it to contribute fully to the organization (HRM Environment n.d).
However, even when Apple, like many other organizations, is going through challenging times due to the changing organizational environment, innovation remains to be at the forefront of this organization. HRM function has been very active in the identification of the HR issues that are coming up, and these issues are being dealt with in very innovative ways (Wyatt n.d).
This company has made major steps with the intention of aligning the “HR function with the business” (Wyatt n.d, p.74). The stated mission of the company’s HR function is; to make a contribution towards the success of the company by nurturing “a world-class working environment that attracts and retains excellent people, motivates their alignment and commitment, and inspires them to excel” (Wyatt n.d, p.74).
HR Planning at Apple and Stages of the HRP Process
HR planning is the practice of ensuring that a particular organization has the right employees at any given time, who have the required experiences and capabilities (Human resources management 2013).
The objectives of HRP include: ensuring there is the creation of the most excellent utilization of the human resources; developing employees who are trained well and are flexible; and bringing down the level of the reliance of the organization on the external recruitment agencies (Human resources management 2013).
The focus of HRP is put on having the right individuals and utilizing them in a perfect manner, and also offering them training and ensuring they develop (Human resources management, 2013).
Considering human resources planning at Apple, there is an exhibition of the need to embrace sensitivity to the activity of always recruiting a direct competitor or promoting from within the company.
The future leadership needs of the company, based on leadership drivers, suggest that the common practice of direct recruitment of the competitor or promoting from within the company may not offer leadership competencies, which are needed and has to be “reconsidered depending on the business conditions” (Clieaf 1992)
The stages involved in human resources planning process include: analysis of the situation, or undertaking environmental scanning; human resources demand to forecast; undertaking the analysis of human resources supply, and the last stage is setting up of the action plans to bridge any gap (Management Tutor Series 2003).
Recruitment and Selection
In any particular organization, recruitment and selection is always the most important initial stage of the HRM function. The goal of recruiting is to attract the top talent to the company, following the company’s goal and the focus of labor demand. There are several recruitment techniques, which are generally separated by external and internal sources.
The internal source may involve transferring employees within the company and department examination among others. On the other hand, the external source may involve the use of advertisements, employment agencies and company websites among others. The use of the external source may result from the need to access a variety of choices to hire employees that have top talent, which may not be found internally (Ayob 2012).
The Apple Company prefers to recruit and select internally, especially in recruiting people to take the management positions. Recruiting externally is found to be disadvantageous; it is found to be expensive and time-consuming. However, the company also recruits externally where there is a need to do this. Apple, just like other companies such as McDonald’s, recruits managers internally.
This is because these companies consider this to be easier and more convenient. Also, not much training is required, and this is for the reason that the candidates are already familiar with the company’s activities and are also aware of what needs to be done to take the organization to a higher level (Human resources management 2013).
The Connection between Motivational Theory and Reward
Over time, there have been discussions on the issue of whether money can serve as a motivation to employees, for them to raise the level of their performance (Rowley & Jackson 2010).
Examples can be given of such theorists as Herzberg and Maslow among others, who present an argument that money does not serve as a motivation to improve performance; that money can only serve to motivate people to put their focus on it and not on performance.
But, on the other hand, a large number of the reward scholars present an argument that money actually serves as a motivation for increased performance. They argue that, a reward system that is designed properly will play a great role in motivating employees to achieve a performance level that the organization wishes to attain (Rowley & Jackson 2010).
However, the theories presented by Herzberg and Maslow are categorized as being needs theories. They present an argument that the inherent needs motivate behavior (Rowley & Jackson 2010).
While some people have presented an argument that rewards can play a great role in meeting several needs (e.g. offering big bonuses might help in meeting the self-esteem needs), on the other hand, Herzberg and Maslow presented an argument that; money was not a motivating factor in regard to work performance (Rowley & Jackson 2010).
If indeed the rewards could help in meeting all needs, then this implies that the theory is not quite beneficial to rewards professionals in planning and implementing the rewards system (Rowley & Jackson 2010).
Job Evaluation and Effectiveness of Apple’s Reward System
Job evaluation involves assessing the value of a particular job in comparison with other kinds of jobs within an organization. The process of job evaluation involves making attempts to carry out an orderly comparison among jobs to assess thean ir comparative value, to set up a reasonable structure for payment of wages and salaries.
At Apple, it is ensured that the increasing of the amount of salary is sensible for any particular employee. The salaries are determined after carrying out a very keen job evaluation (Hunt 2007).
People in any particular organization play a very significant role and are considered to be very significant resources. People make sure that the industrial as well as financial resources, among other resources, interact appropriately to have proper functioning of the organization (Hunt 2007).
In the current days, the business managers, who have adequate experience, have realized that the financial rewards cannot remain to be the only form of rewarding employees. The needs of employees are supposed to be considered as being an entity, which contributes toward searching for the non-financial incentives (Hunt 2007).
It is important to point out that a company should embrace a “total reward system,” which facilitates incorporation of financial as well as non-financial incentives. The Apple Company has actually done this, and this has proved to be an effective approach and has contributed towards its success.
However, it is also important to point out that, in spite of the effort made to motivate employees in the company, it is imperative to remember that, in some cases, regardless of what the management can do, the employees are either; not satisfied with their jobs, realize or even go beyond the goals set in their work, or work at very high levels, without the management exerting much influence whatsoever (George & Jones 2008).
Employee Performance and Monitoring
For effective management of people, management of their performance is an all-inclusive process, which brings together many features of the organizational function (Human resources management 2013).
The management of performance involves; setting up of a culture of an organization in which groups, as well as individuals, receive obligation for having constant business process growth, and developing the contributions they make and their conduct.
Apple, like many other companies, carries out continuous management of employee performance. The company sets goals, undertakes to monitor of the achievement of goals by employees, undertakes an evaluation of the performance of the employees, and positively or negatively rewards these employees.
Management of employee performance encompasses carrying out activities constantly to set up the organizational goals, and to achieve them in the most efficient and effective way possible (Human resources management 2013).
The Apple Company conducts an all-inclusive employee survey after every two years. The questions in the survey concern how well the employees understand the strategy the company has put in place and they are also asked about whether the delivery results are in line with that particular strategy.
The display of the results is done in regard to the actual level of the employee responses, as well as the general response trend. This is intended to determine employee alignment and commitment in this company (Schneier et al., 1995).
Termination and the Exit Procedures
Employee termination can be defined as; an organization’s practice of ending the workers’ employment against their will (Employee termination 2013). This practice, in the Apple Company as well as in McDonald’s for instance, results from such causes as a poor job, conflict of employees with their colleagues or managers, and lack of proper conduct among other causes (Employee termination 2013).
In general terms, the employers are permitted by law to engage in terminating employees based on any kind of employee behavior, which may be seen to be unacceptable.
But, on the other hand, the laws have offered protection against some employee behaviors where the action taken by the employer to terminate an employee is considered to be abuse of public policy, a deed based on bad faith, or a breaking of an indirect contract made between the employee and the employer (Employee termination 2013).
The definition of a deed of bad faith has not been presented in a clear manner, and is merely a recognition that the employer must give the employee impartial treatment. For instance, it might be taken not to be legal for an organization to take a step to fire an employee just because he or she did not accept to take part in an activity, which would be considered by a rational human being as being quite dangerous (Employee termination 2013).
The case of violation of a public policy might be illustrated by considering a situation where an organization takes measures to fire a particular employee for the reason that he or she, did not accept to take part in an act that is considered to be unlawful. An example of such an act may be, giving off a testimony that is not true in a court of law or presenting false public documents that contain financial information (Employee termination 2013).
Moreover, the occurrence of a violation of indirect contracts may take place in a situation where an organization dismisses an employee, in spite of an indirect promise existing.
For instance, in case an employer tells an employee that he will offer him a permanent job with an intention of convincing the employee to accept the job, the employer could be liable if he or she dismisses the employee without, what is deemed by the courts of law as being, a just cause.
The implicit contracts generally come out from the interviews, the employer’s longstanding behavior arrangements while having a relationship with a worker, and also from the policy handbooks (Employee termination 2013).
Because of some legal risks associated with employee dismissal, the Apple and McDonald’s companies dismiss employees, especially due to causes that are related to employee behaviors, only when they have administered a counseling and disciplinary procedure (Employee termination 2013).
Apart from the legal reason, these companies make attempts to ensure behavior correction out of the moral obligation that they perceive to have towards the employees (Employee termination 2013). However, the attempts to correct employee behavior are not successful at all times.
In such situations, these companies take some measures to lessen the burden felt by the affected employees, and to bring down the level of the destruction that is caused on the workstation morale and protect them against the legal liability.
The steps taken include: Developing concise policies that guide employee termination and to follow them strictly; documenting the reasons for terminating any particular employee over time in terms that are quantifiable where it is possible; conducting the dismissal meeting with the affected worker in the most professional way possible; and giving credit to the affected employees for the positive contribution they might have made to the company.
This, in one way or the other, helps in easing the shock that the dismissed employee may experience, and may also make them feel positive (Employee termination 2013).
Legal and Regulatory Framework Impact and Employee Termination
Employee selection and termination are handled in a very careful way. This is for the reason that various companies, which intend to increase their profits to the highest level possible, are clearly concerned with the issue of the likelihood of losing talent or having the company’s effectiveness being affected negatively. Caution should as well be taken to make sure that employee termination does not lead to the violation of the law.
For example, employee termination is not supposed to be based on bias against the minorities that are protected, or inadvertently bring about an “equitable outcome of a protected group” (Employee termination, 2013 p.1). There is a very extensive legislation aimed at offering protection against the employees living with disabilities, the racial minorities, women, and employees aged over fifty years among other groups (Employee termination 2013).
The business organizations also have to engage in complying with battery laws especially aimed at company dismissals (Employee termination, 2013, p.1).
For instance, the “federal Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act” of 1988 calls for the business organizations, having at least one hundred employees, to engage in filing a notice in advance (at least two months or 60 days) before dismissing a large number of employees at once (Employee termination 2013).
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