of Affiliation What economic and technological factors shaped the development of cities and urban life in the late 19thand early 20th centuries?
The inventions that characterized the late 19th century and early 20th century contributed immensely to the transformation from rural, agricultural country to urban, industrial nation. Some of these invention include refrigerated railroad car, cigarette-rolling machines, invention of the gasoline machine in 1878, and spread of electricity. This implied that more factories could be built up and powered by electricity. Also, availability of rail transport system and the demand of manpower to work in the factories that were being setup led to migration to regions with industries. This migration fuelled economic activities thus leading to urbanization.
What types of progressive legislation passed in the early 1900s? To what extent were they the result of grassroots pressure? Of leadership by particular individuals and political parties?
This progressive era saw the 15th and 16th Amendments being passed that served to free the black American community from chains of slavery and discrimination. It is also these amendments that gave the black men opportunity to participate in electoral voting. However, women had to wait until 1920 before they earned their rights to participate in electoral processes. The progressive legislations were clearly a product of grassroots pressure from abolitionists and women rights movements. Women suffrage movements had by 19th century gained momentum and little could have been done to tone their demands down. All they wanted was their rights just as the African Americans demanded for them.
What factors contributed to racial and labor violence after the war?
After the war, it was evident that most blacks were still being victims of segregation as most of their basic freedoms were curtailed. Secondly, the industrialization has just taken its roots and most of the workers felt they were working under deplorable conditions. Statistics gathered in the same period revealed that most employees had succumbed to death due to injuries or illnesses relating to their workplaces. Labor movements soon shaped up and calls for the end of child labor, improved working conditions, and better pay became the order of the day.