10 Artists by Art Movement Overview

Many people have contributed to the world of Fine Arts. Each of these ten artists have their own unique style. Their mediums such as sculpting, oil painting, drawing have contributed to the various movements of their centuries. Some artists become a master of one medium, some dabble in multiple mediums, and others can make creative work out of any they do. These mediums surely have influenced their perspective movements and are critical to the evolution of art. Art continues to evolve in this present day. No matter what these artists are faced with in the world around them they give us a visual experience that we can observe, analyze, and criticize. Once we see their art we realize the importance, beauty, mysteries, and history of each piece. Some artistic pieces have appreciation for Gods, Greeks, Romans, Hero’s, Nature, Animals, Abstract, etc. Some bring about feelings towards political and social issues in the world. Some bring people together while others divide. Good or bad, all Fine Art deserves to be created and explored. We desire it, for it is, a part of our Human Nature.

Neoclassicism

Italian sculptor Antonio Canova was born in Possagno, a small village in the Republic of Venice on November 1, 1757. His grandfather had a studio and Canova started sculpting marble at a young age. Canova travelled all around Italy in pursuit of learning various art collections. Canova decided to go to Rome and study antiquities and this is where he flourished. In 1781, he opened his own art studio and entered a competition with the statue of Apollo Crowning Himself, 1781-1782. This was the first fully classical antique work in Neoclassical approach for which, Canova is now “called “the supreme minister of beauty” and “a unique and truly divine man” by contemporaries” (“Getty Museum,” 2020, para. 1). It has clear form, physical ideology, calm order and impressive carving mimicking real flesh (Ferando, 2016). Some view this sculpture as the greatest male nude in art history. I see a perfectly structured man, relaxed and in deep thought. It has become the new Grecian style for most monuments. Despite becoming one of the greatest Neoclassical sculptures, Canova’s early work showed signs of Baroque art as seen in Daedalus and Icarus, 1777-1779 and Rococo art as seen in Orpheus, 1776 (“Antonio Canova,” n.d.). During the French invasion of Italy and the establishment of the Napoleonic empire, Italy became politically turbulent, however Canova was still called upon by Napoleon and opposing Pope Pius VII for favors. After the fall of the French Empire in 1815, Canova moved back home and dabbled in painting and architecture before he died October 13, 1822 in Venice.

Apollo Crowning Himself
Antonio Canova: Apollo Crowning Himself, 1781-1782

Romanticism

French painter Theodore Gericault was born in Rouen, France on September 26, 1791. Gericault decided to go against his father’s wishes and received artistic training in 1808 (Lindsay, 2000). He trained under Carle Vernet whom he would later claim was his master (Lindsay, 2000). What drew him to Vernet was his military paintings featuring horses. Gericault was fascinated by horses. Many of his mediums utilized oil painting as the main tool for conveying his imagination. Gericault would become well known in the Romanticism movement which emphasized emotion and subjectivity. Gericault exhibited three oil paintings at the Salon in Paris, France. Charging Chasseur, 1812, was the first and this French Romanticism painting, however it showed some Baroque art influence and did not do well. Wounded Cuirassier Leaving the Field of Battle, 1814, the second fared better despite its subject in which the French military lost under Napoleon. The final Raft of the Medusa, 1819 which is known as the most dramatic in its depiction of real life suffering-rather than drama-on a makeshift raft following a captain’s failure to prevent a shipwreck. Gericault’s life was cut short due to repeated riding accidents and a tubercular condition that brought on a painfully fatal illness resulting in his death on January 26, 1824 in Paris, France (Eitner, 2000). Therefore, the challenges were health-related, and major events that might have influenced his works is the fact that he lived under Napoleon Bonaparte the first half of his life.

The Raft of Medusa
Theodore Gericault: The Raft of Medusa, 1819

Impressionism

American painter, Mary Cassatt was born on May 22, 1844 in Allegheny, Pennsylvania. Cassatt spent most of her life and career in France. In 1865 Cassatt left for Paris and decided to study under Impressionist Jean-Leon Gerome. The Mandolin Player, 1872 was the first work of Cassatt’s which was accepted for inclusion in the Paris Salon in 1868. This oil painting has a dark background and overall heavy feel of a traditional portrait (“Biography,” 2020). Thus, the majority of his works were created in both US and France. The artists primarily used traditional medium of oil on canvas with no indication of experimentations with other alternatives. Cassatt was later encouraged to print make, and the subjects tended to be family, theater, opera, and her specialty is the “mother and child” theme. She expressed this theme with warmth, naturalness, pastels, and prints. Cassatt depicted facial features of her family and friends with great precision as in the oil painting The Boat Party, 1893 (“The Art Story Biography,” 2020). Wanting to channel interior states that often are unknown to men was also motivation (“The Art Story Biography,” 2020). A perfect example of this is Maternity, 1890. These “mother and child” works received success because they filled a societal need to idealize women’s domestic role at a time women desired equality (“The Art Story Biography,” 2020). Therefore, the artists contributed to both movements of impressionism and early form of feminism. The challenges she faced were related to her health and patriarchic system, which discriminated women on all levels. She was living during initial stages of feminist uprising, and the majority of her works reflect and convey the message of femininity and womanhood. Therefore, the innovative aspect of the artist’s work is the combination of impressionism and feminist undertone. After 1900 Cassatt gave up printmaking, quit painting due to failing eyesight, and spent the rest of her days in Mesnil-Theribus, France where she died June 14, 1926.

Maternity
Mary Cassatt: Maternity, 1890

Post-Impressionism

Pierre Bonnard a French printmaker, illustrator, and painter was born on October 3, 1867 in Frontenac-aux-Roses, France. In 1886 he entered the University of Paris to study law. The artist became a member of Academie Julian and met Les Nabis, who was advocate of modernism and Post-Impressionism (Amory, 2010). Therefore, he contributed to the movement of novel impressionism as well as modernism. In 1890 Bonnard became influenced by Japanese prints contributing to his painting style (Amory, 2010). He met his wife Marthe de Meligny in 1893 and would marry her 32 years later, at which time he found out her real name was Maria Bourin (Amory, 2010). This may be why there are many Marthe in everyday depictions. He used mostly one medium of oil painting, but his innovative approach was manifested in the palette. There a wide range of example for such a direction, among which, Man and Women of 1900 and Indolence of 1899 are the most prominent. Starting in 1900 Bonnard spent most of his time in the countryside between Paris and Normandy painting landscapes. The artist created his own unique palette without altering the brushwork and composition. He traveled a lot in Europe and North Africa, “but the tranquility of his painted world is not disturbed by the events of real life” (“FreeArt,” 2020). After his wife Marthe died in 1942 he became a recluse. His work, The Almond Tree in Blossom, 1947, was completed only prior to his death on January 23, 1947. Post-Impressionism is a response to Impressionist movements, where the former breaks the rules of the latter. The painting utilizes thick, paint application, vivid colors, distorts the shapes, and utilizes geometric patterns, which are all indicative of the given style.

The Almond Tree in Blossom
Pierre Bonnard: The Almond Tree in Blossom, 1947

Expressionism

Franz Marc a German printmaker and artist was born in Munich, Germany on February 8, 1880. At an early age he was influenced by his father who was a landscape painter. He studied at The Academy of Fine Arts. He became a key figure of the Expressionist movement in Germany, however he experimented with Impressionism and Pointillism to no satisfaction (“The Art Story Biography,” 2020). He would co-found a magazine named The Blue Rider. Its focus was the movement and the connection to a group of artists who were in charge of posting images and breaking stories. In 1903 and again in 1907 Marc traveled to France, spending most of his time in Paris where he took much influence from Parisian art and Impressionism. In 1912 Marc met Robert Delaunay, who used color and design methods, in a futuristic manner; this led to the futuristic movement. The given style alongside Cubism was one of the main fascinations of Marc. Animal subjects that Marc loved and often returned to, they represented a spiritual attitude. Marc’s most important work, Large Lenggries Horse, 1908 is a great example of this. In 1911 Marc took on color symbolism used by Wassily Kandinsky which blue represented spirituality/maleness, yellow represented femininity/sensuality and red represented terrestrial materiality. Two good examples of this are Yellow Cow, 1911 and Blue Horse, 1911. Yellow Cow, 1911 is a favorite of mine, the array of bold colors, the masculine structured cow yet yellow feminine used color expresses proud strength in a female to me. Marc made approximately 60 prints in woodcut and lithography also. Marc’s work would soon become oppressed by the Nazis in the early 1930s, 130 pieces of his work removed from exhibits in different cities in Germany. In August 1914 when World War I broke out Marc volunteered and joined the German Army. Sadly, on March 4, 1916 Marc would die in the Battle of Verdun. Not only was Marc’s work appreciated during his time but, to this day, Frank Marc is considered to be one of the most influential painters to come out of Germany (“Biography,” 2020).

Yellow Cow
Franz Marc: Yellow Cow, 1911

Futurism

Gino Severini was an Italian painter, mosaicist, writer, and set designer. Born April 7, 1883 in Cortona, Italy. He spent most of his life divided between Paris and Rome. He had a poor upbringing and this did not get much better after moving to Rome. He had little money, rented small cramped quarters to sleep, and would attend artist friends’ parties to eat delicious foods. The medium of the artist was oil painting, and he contributed and had the most impact to the art movement of futurism (“Britannica,” 2020). Severini usually used human figures as the subject of energetic motion instead of cars or machines like other Futuristic artists (“Britannica,” 2020). Severini had a particular fondness for painting nightclub scenes-capturing human sensations and atmosphere of movement and sound (“The Art Story,” 2020). An example of this is Dynamic Hieroglyphic of the Bal Tabarin, 1912. This painting reminds me of a party the rich would throw. The use of colors especially gold and the feel of moment by the swirls like people are dancing. Severini’s work was influenced by World War I. Futurism encouraged war, violence, disorganization, as well as abstraction. Red Cross Train Passing Village, 1915 is a good example of this. In 1916, Severini lost his interest towards Futurism, and he was more involved in classical style of paintings (“Artnet,” 2020). The artist’s later works hint the fact that he combined pointillism and Futurism into a specific manifestation of Cubism, which can be observed in Spherical Expansion of Light, 1914 (“Britannica,” 2020). Severini died February 26, 1966 in Paris, France.

Dynamic Hieroglyphic of the Bal Tabarin
Gino Severini: Dynamic Hieroglyphic of the Bal Tabarin, 1912

Surrealism

Raymond Georges Yves Tanguy, known as Yves Tanguy, was a French-born American surrealist painter. He was born in Paris, France on January 5, 1900. After the sudden death of his father his mother moved away and Tanguy spent his youth moving from relative to relative. He joined the Merchant Navy before being drafted in the Army. He then worked odd jobs until seeing Giorgio de Chirico, Le cerveau de l’enfant, 1914. Tanguy knew he had to become a painter himself (“Famous Painters,” 2020). Tanguy did not have formal training in painting but his skill was enormous. He went on to join with the Surrealist group in 1925 and a second in 1930 (“Famous Painters,” 2020). With the onset of World War II Tanguy moved to the U.S. in 1939 where he and his girlfriend Kay Sage could do the majority of their paintings. Kay Sage was a fellow Surrealist painter. In1940 they got married in Reno, Nevada and became U.S. citizens in 1948. Tanguy’s quirky style captured the hyper realism of everyday objects with superb precision. A lot of Tanguys’s work consists of misshapen rocks and surfaces, the very beauty of Surrealism. Prior to 1930 Tanguy’s art is seen as quite spontaneous and fluid in nature, almost as if he didn’t care about his paintings being liked or not. After 1930 Tanguy’s painting became more colorful and started developing a more metallic characteristic. Tanguy had a deep connection to the dream world and the unconscious (“Famous Painters,” 2020) which shows in his paintings Multiplication of the Arc, 1954. Imaginary Numbers, 1954. Mama, Papa is Wounded, 1927 feels like being in a nightmare with the use of grim colors and symbols. It’s like you know something sad or painful is happening but you just can’t figure out what and who its happening to Tanguy characterized himself as “very much alone in my work, I am almost jealous of it (“The Art Story,” 2020).” He did become a loner towards the end of his life but he would bring himself to star in Hans Richter’s art movie 8×8. Unfortunately, life was cut short when Tanguy suddenly died of a cerebral hemorrhage on January 15, 1955.

Mama, Papa is wounded
Yves Tanguy: Mama, Papa is wounded, 1927

Abstract Expressionism

Joan Mitchell, an American painter and printmaker was born on February 12, 1925 in Chicago, Illinois. She received her BFA & MFA from the School of the Art Institute of Chicago. In 1949 she moved to New York. At a time when women were undervalued in the art world, she captured the attention of famed painters Franz Kline and Hans Hoffman. Mitchell soon would be included in a groundbreaking “Ninth Street Show” of Abstract Expressionist art and gained membership in the predominantly male Eighth Street Club (“Britannica biography,” 2020c). She used lattices of slashing color to convey memories of her feelings about experiences of particular places. It is stated: “Mitchell had a neurological condition called Synesthesia which manifests in the mixing of senses so letters or words can evoke colors, sounds can create physical sensations. The presence of vivid color every day we can say probably had an impact on her work” (“ThoughtCo biography,” 2020). Good example of this is Blueberry, 1969. Ladybug, 1957 is a jungle to me. It’s abstract and use of colors make it feel more like the Ladybugs view of looking upon the grassy area she is about to explore. Mitchell’s style did change between 1960-1964 when her father died and her mother had a cancer diagnosis. She defines this period as very violent and angry as seen in Untitled, 1964. Her style became almost a language to communicate emotion and life experiences. Brice Marden once said “she has an uncanny ability to infuse her painting with mood” (MOMA, 2020). Mitchell died after years of smoking from lung cancer at age 67. She died on October 30, 1992 in Paris, France. Her generosity lives on through the Joan Mitchell Foundation which provides grants to sculptors and painters in the U.S. Sadly she is not alive today to see the price paid for her paintings are among the highest earned by a female artist.

Ladybug
Joan Mitchell: Ladybug, 1957

Minimalism

Robert Ryman was born May 30, 1930 in Nashville, Tennessee. He was an American painter whose mediums contributed to the minimalism movement. However, Ryman called himself a realist and he is grouped with post-minimalist tendencies of Conceptual and Process Art. Ryman did attend Tennessee Polytechnic Institute, George Peabody College for Teachers, and served two years in the military but never took an art class. In 1953 Ryman moved to New York where he would begin and complete most of his work. Ryman was originally inspired to be a jazz saxophonist but after working at the Museum of Modern Art/MoMA in New York for 7 years he felt he was trained in art and wanted to try his hand at painting. He focused on white on white as his painting style. Depending on the material that is painted over and how they are applied, what the binders are, and how much they are diluted all make a difference in Ryman’s work with white (Searle, 2019). He wanted to separate himself from Abstract Expressionist and concentrated on monochromatic canvases, which are a single color hue it’s tint, shade, and tones on canvas. In 1958 one of Ryman’s paintings would be shown for the first time in the MoMA staff exhibition Untitled (Orange Painting), 1955-1959. Although he loved using white this one was definitely orange. I see an orange square with texture like it should be on my floor as tile if you liked orange. Ryman once said “ I don’t abstract from anything….I am involved with real space, the room itself, real light, and real surface (“Britannica biography,” 2020a).” An example of this is Untitled (Background Music), 1962. Ryman also liked to use custom-made wall hangers and brackets to give his paintings three -dimensional life. An example of this is Counsel, 1982. The challenge for Ryman’s work would be not receiving enough attention because it was difficult to classify, and so limited his sphere of influence. His single use of color (or absence of) has inspired a few artists recently such as Fernanda Gomes (“The Art Story Biography,” 2020). Ryaman passed away on February 8, 2019, at age of 88 in New York City.

Untitled
Robert Ryman: Untitled (Orange Painting), 1955 and 1959

Postmodernism

David Salle was born September 28, 1952 in Norman, OK. He was an American stage designer, photographer, printmaker, and painter. Salle went to the California Institute of the Arts where he got his MFA and BFA. In 1976 he moved to New York where he found work at a publishing house. Here he would collect images including some pornographic ones from their archives. Ryman began to overlay the images in his work which became his signature style. A good example of this is Tennyson, 1983. I like this use of pastiche. It blurs a line between nudity being natural and sexual leaving the representation to your imagination. He is part of the Postmodernism movement. He uses a postmodern technique of pastiche which celebrates, rather than mocks, the work of others. As seen in Sailor, 2007. He also paints collage-like compositions. Silver 1, 2014 is a perfect display of this. Ryman has angered feminist with his consistent use of aggressively posed nude women, they strongly oppose his voyeuristic work (“Britannica Biography,” 2020b). This will continue to be a challenge for him. After Salle’s first solo show in New York City, where most of his work is created, he formed a bond with gallery owner Mary Boone. She continues to represent him today. During this same time Salle has expanded his artistic abilities to include theatrical design, producing sculptures and exhibiting his photos. Salle revealed his Search and Destroy which attracted big name actors but was met with a wide range of reviews. He is a writer and does interviews on art, however he keeps his personal life private. He has played a significant role in shaping postmodern art, often putting together “high” and “low” art together on a single canvas. He has been influential to newer artists such as Jeff Koons, but it has not come without controversy. Women all around the world will never get past the provocative female images in his paintings (“The Art Story,” 2020).

 Tennyson
David Salle: Tennyson, 1983

Conclusion

Art seems to be in the eye of the beholder. Our visual examination of the different shapes, sizes, and forms will aid in our preference for a particular piece of art. An emotional feeling or strong message seems to draw us towards a certain piece as well. Each of these ten artists left us tangible pieces of creative history to explore and I hope you all will examine and see how special they are in their own right.

References

Amory. D. (2010). “Pierre Bonnard (1867–1947): The Late Interiors.” In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum. Web.

Artnet. (2020). Web.

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Britannica biography. (2020a). Web.

Eitner. L. (2000). “In French Paintings of the Nineteenth Century. Part I: Before Impressionism.” Web.

Famous Painters. (2020). Web.

Ferando. C. (2016). “Antonio Canova (1757–1822).” In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000. Web.

Free Art. (2020). Web.

Getty Museum. (2020). Web.

Lindsay, S. (2000). “In European Sculpture of the Nineteenth Century.” Web.

MOMA. (2020). Web.

Searle, A. (2019). Robert Ryman: The master of white who took painting apart. The Guardian. Web.

The Art Story Biography. (2020). Web.

ThoughtCo Biography. (2020). Web.

Visual-Arts-Cork. (n.d.). 2020. Web.